Alfonso XII of Spain

Alfonso XII
King Alfonso XII.jpg
Alfonso photographed in uniform in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, 1884
King of Spain
Reign29 December 1874 – 25 November 1885
PredecessorAmadeo I
SuccessorAlfonso XIII
Prime Ministers
Born(1857-11-28)28 November 1857
Royal Palace of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
Died25 November 1885(1885-11-25) (aged 27)
Royal Palace of El Pardo, Madrid, Spain
SpouseMercedes of Orléans
Maria Christina of Austria
María de las Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
Infanta María Teresa
Alfonso XIII of Spain
FatherFrancis, Duke of Cádiz
MotherIsabella II of Spain
ReligionRoman Catholic

Alfonso XII (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 1857 – 25 November 1885) was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. After a revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, who became Alfonso XIII on his birth the following year.

To date, he is the last monarch of Spain who died whilst on the throne.

Political background, early life and paternity

A young Alfonso with his mentor, the Duke of Sesto

Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, Infante Francis. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans (a captain of the guard).[1] These rumours were used as political propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists.

His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars. The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. In addition, within the context of the post-Napoleonic restorations and revolutions which engulfed the West both in Europe and the Americas, both the Carlistas as well as the Isabelino conservatives were opposed to the new Napoleonic constitutional system. Much like in Britain, which subtracted itself from the liberal constitutional process, Spanish conservatives wanted to continue with the Traditional Spanish Organic Laws such as the Fuero Juzgo, the Novísima Recopilación and the Partidas of Alfonso X. This led to the third cause of instability of note, the "Independence of the American Kingdoms", recognized between 1823 and 1850.

Other Languages
беларуская: Альфонса XII
български: Алфонсо XII
čeština: Alfons XII.
français: Alphonse XII
한국어: 알폰소 12세
hrvatski: Alfons XII.
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Türkçe: XII. Alfonso
українська: Альфонс XII