Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky
Alexander Pushkin by Orest Kiprensky
BornAleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
(1799-05-26)26 May 1799
Moscow, Russian Empire
Died29 January 1837(1837-01-29) (aged 37)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
OccupationPoet, novelist, playwright
LanguageRussian, French
NationalityRussian
Alma materTsarskoye Selo Lyceum
PeriodGolden Age of Russian Poetry
GenreNovel, novel in verse, poem, drama, short story, fairytale
Literary movementRomanticism
Realism
Notable worksEugene Onegin, The Captain's Daughter, Boris Godunov, Ruslan and Ludmila
Spouse
Natalia Pushkina (m. 1831)
ChildrenMaria, Alexander Fremke, Grigory, Natalia
RelativesSergei Lvovich Pushkin, Nadezhda Ossipovna Gannibal

Signature

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (English: n/[1]; Russian: Александр Сергеевич Пушкин[note 1], tr. Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn] (About this sound listen); 6 June [O.S. 26 May] 1799 – 10 February [O.S. 29 January] 1837) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic era[2] who is considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet[3][4][5][6] and the founder of modern Russian literature.[7][8]

Pushkin was born into Russian nobility in Moscow. His father, Sergey Lvovich Pushkin, belonged to Pushkin noble families. His matrilineal great-grandfather was Abram Petrovich Gannibal. He published his first poem at the age of 15, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. Upon graduation from the Lycee, Pushkin recited his controversial poem "Ode to Liberty", one of several that led to his being exiled by Tsar Alexander the First. While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov. His novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832.

Pushkin was fatally wounded in a duel with his brother-in-law, Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès, also known as Dantes-Gekkern, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, who attempted to seduce the poet's wife, Natalia Pushkina.

Ancestry

Pushkin's father, Sergei Lvovich Pushkin (1767–1848), was descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility that traced its ancestry back to the 12th century.[9][10]

Pushkin's mother, Nadezhda (Nadya) Ossipovna Gannibal (1775–1836), was descended through her paternal grandmother from German and Scandinavian nobility.[11][12] She was the daughter of Ossip Abramovich Gannibal (1744–1807) and his wife, Maria Alekseyevna Pushkina (1745–1818).

Major S. L. Pushkin – father of the poet

Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, was Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696–1781), an African page kidnapped to Constantinople as a gift to the Ottoman Sultan and later transferred to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. Abram wrote in a letter to Empress Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, that Gannibal was from the town of "Lagon". Largely on the basis of a mythical biography by Gannibal's son-in-law Rotkirkh, some historians concluded from this that Gannibal was born in a part of what was then the Abyssinian Empire, located today in Eritrea.[13] Vladimir Nabokov, when researching Eugene Onegin, cast serious doubt on this origin theory. Later research by the scholars Dieudonné Gnammankou and Hugh Barnes eventually conclusively established that Gannibal was instead born in Central Africa, in an area bordering Lake Chad in modern-day Cameroon.[13][14] After education in France as a military engineer, Gannibal became governor of Reval and eventually Général en Chef (the third most senior army rank) in charge of the building of sea forts and canals in Russia.

Nadezhda Gannibalova – mother of the poet
Pushkin exam at lyceum
Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Aleksandr Puşkin
Bân-lâm-gú: Alexander Pushkin
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Аляксандар Пушкін
estremeñu: Alexander Pushkin
Fiji Hindi: Alexander Pushkin
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
Bahasa Indonesia: Aleksandr Pushkin
interlingua: Alexander Pushkin
la .lojban.: aleksandr. puckin
مصرى: بوشكين
Bahasa Melayu: Alexander Pushkin
Baso Minangkabau: Alexander Pushkin
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
Nederlands: Aleksandr Poesjkin
norsk nynorsk: Aleksandr Pusjkin
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Aleksandr Pushkin
پنجابی: پشکن
Piemontèis: Aleksandr Puškin
português: Alexandre Pushkin
Qaraqalpaqsha: Aleksandr Pushkin
qırımtatarca: Aleksandr Puşkin
Runa Simi: Aleksandr Puxkin
русиньскый: Александр Пушкин
Simple English: Alexander Pushkin
српски / srpski: Александар Пушкин
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Aleksandar Puškin
татарча/tatarça: Александр Пушкин
vepsän kel’: Puškin Aleksandr
West-Vlams: Alexander Poesjkin
粵語: 普希金
žemaitėška: Aleksandros Poškėns