Aleppo

This article is about the city. For other uses, see Aleppo (disambiguation).
"Halab" redirects here. For other uses, see Halab (disambiguation).
Aleppo
ﺣﻠﺐ
Ḥalab
City
 Ancient City of AleppoAleppo Citadel • The entrance to al-Madina SouqGreat Mosque of Aleppo • Baron HotelSaint Elias Cathedral • Queiq RiverPanorama of Aleppo at night
This is the seal of the Aleppo city.png
Seal
Nickname(s): Al-Shahbaa [1]
Aleppo is located in Syria
Aleppo
Aleppo
Location in Syria
Coordinates: 36°13′N 37°10′E / 36°13′N 37°10′E / 36.217; 37.167
Country   Syria
Governorate Aleppo Governorate
District Mount Simeon (Jabal Semaan)
First settled 5000 BC
First city council 1868
Government
 • Governor Ahmad Hussein Diyab
 • Mayor Mohammad Ayman Hallaq
Area
 • Total 190 km2 (70 sq mi)
Elevation 379 m (1,243 ft)
Population 2017 estimate
 • Total 1,800,000
Time zone EET ( UTC+2)
 • Summer ( DST) EEST ( UTC+3)
Area code(s) Country code: 963
City code: 21
Demonym Arabic: حلبي Ḥalabi‎‎
English: Aleppine [2]

Sources: Aleppo city area [3] Sources: City population [4] [5] [6]

Official name Ancient City of Aleppo
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv
Designated 1986 (10th session)
Reference no. 21
State Party Syria
Region Arab States

Aleppo ( /; Arabic: ﺣﻠﺐ‎‎ / ALA-LC: Ḥalab, IPA:  [ˈħalab]) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. [7] With an official population of 2,132,100 (2004 census), Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War; however, now Aleppo is likely the second-largest city in Syria after the capital Damascus.

Aleppo is an ancient city, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it may have been inhabited since the 6th millennium BC. [8] Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied by Amorites since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC; [9] and this is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is a part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, and noted for its commercial and military proficiency. [10] Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia (i.e. modern Iraq).

For centuries, Aleppo was the largest city in the Syrian region, and the Ottoman Empire's third-largest after Constantinople and Cairo. [11] [12] [13] It was also one of the largest cities in the Levant before the advent of the Syrian Civil War. [14] [15] [16] The city's significance in history has been its location at one end of the Silk Road, which passed through central Asia and Mesopotamia. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1869, trade was diverted to sea and Aleppo began its slow decline. At the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Aleppo ceded its northern hinterland to modern Turkey, as well as the important railway connecting it to Mosul. In the 1940s, it lost its main access to the sea, Antakya and İskenderun, also to Turkey. Finally, the isolation of Syria in the past few decades further exacerbated the situation. This decline may have helped to preserve the old city of Aleppo, its medieval architecture and traditional heritage. It won the title of the "Islamic Capital of Culture 2006", and has had a wave of successful restorations of its historic landmarks.

During the Battle of Aleppo the city suffered massive destruction, [17] and has been the worst-hit city in the Syrian Civil War. [18] In December 2016, the Syrian government achieved full control of Aleppo following a successful offensive.

Etymology

Modern-day English-speakers commonly refer to the city as Aleppo. It was known in antiquity as Khalpe, Khalibon, and to the Greeks and Romans as Beroea (Βέροια). [19] During the Crusades, and again during the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon of 1923–1946, the name Alep was used. Aleppo represents the Italianised version of this.

The original ancient name, Halab, has survived as the current Arabic name of the city. It is of obscure origin. Some have proposed that halab means "iron" or "copper" in Amorite languages, since the area served as a major source of these metals in antiquity. However, according to the 20th-century historian sheikh Kamel al-Ghazzi and to the contemporary linguist priest Barsoum Ayyoub, the name Halab (and consequently Aleppo) derives from the Aramaic word Halaba which means "white", referring to the color of soil and marble abundant in the area. [20] The modern-day Arabic nickname of the city, ash-Shahbaa (Arabic: الشهباء), which means "the white-colored," also allegedly derives from the famous white marble of Aleppo. [21]

From the 11th century it was common rabbinic usage to apply the term " Aram-Zobah" to the area of Aleppo, and many Syrian Jews continue to do so.

Other Languages
Acèh: Halab
Afrikaans: Aleppo
العربية: حلب
Avañe'ẽ: Alepo
авар: ХӀалаб
azərbaycanca: Hələb
تۆرکجه: حلب
বাংলা: আলেপ্পো
Bân-lâm-gú: Aleppo
беларуская: Горад Халеб
Bikol Central: Aleppo
български: Халеб
bosanski: Halep
brezhoneg: Aleppo
буряад: Халеб
català: Alep
Чӑвашла: Алеппо
čeština: Aleppo
Cymraeg: Aleppo
dansk: Aleppo
Deutsch: Aleppo
eesti: Aleppo
Ελληνικά: Χαλέπι
español: Alepo
Esperanto: Alepo
euskara: Alepo
فارسی: حلب
français: Alep
Frysk: Aleppo
Gaeilge: Aleppo
galego: Alepo
한국어: 알레포
Հայերեն: Հալեպ
हिन्दी: हलब
hrvatski: Alep
Bahasa Indonesia: Aleppo
Interlingue: Aleppo
Ирон: Алеппо
íslenska: Aleppó
italiano: Aleppo
עברית: חלב (עיר)
Basa Jawa: Aleppo
kalaallisut: Aleppo
ქართული: ალეპო
қазақша: Алеппо
Kinyarwanda: Alepo
Kurdî: Heleb
Latina: Halapia
latviešu: Haleba
lietuvių: Alepas
magyar: Aleppó
മലയാളം: അലെപ്പോ
मराठी: अलेप्पो
მარგალური: ალეპო
مصرى: حلب
Bahasa Melayu: Aleppo
монгол: Халеб хот
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အယ်လက်ပိုမြို့
Nederlands: Aleppo (stad)
日本語: アレッポ
нохчийн: Халеб
norsk bokmål: Aleppo
norsk nynorsk: Aleppo
occitan: Alèp
олык марий: Халеб
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Halab
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਹਲਬ
پنجابی: حلب
پښتو: حلب
polski: Aleppo
português: Alepo
română: Alep
Runa Simi: Aleppo
русский: Алеппо
Scots: Aleppo
shqip: Halepi
sicilianu: Aleppu
Simple English: Aleppo
slovenčina: Halab
slovenščina: Alep
ślůnski: Aleppo
Soomaaliga: Xalab
српски / srpski: Алеп
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alep
suomi: Aleppo
svenska: Aleppo
தமிழ்: அலெப்போ
Taqbaylit: Ḥaleb
татарча/tatarça: Хәлеб
Türkçe: Halep
українська: Алеппо
اردو: حلب
Tiếng Việt: Aleppo
Winaray: Aleppo
粵語: 阿勒坡
Zazaki: Heleb
中文: 阿勒颇