Albuquerque, New Mexico

Albuquerque, New Mexico
City
City of Albuquerque
Balloon Fiesta, Downtown Albuquerque Alvarado Center, Sandia Peak Tramway San Felipe de Neri Church, Rio Grande Wetlands
Flag of Albuquerque, New Mexico
Flag
Official seal of Albuquerque, New Mexico
Seal
Nicknames: 
ABQ, Burque, The 505, The Duke City, The Q
Location within Bernalillo County
Location within Bernalillo County
Albuquerque is located in New Mexico
Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Location within New Mexico
Albuquerque is located in the United States
Albuquerque
Albuquerque
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 35°06′39″N 106°36′36″W / 35°06′39″N 106°36′36″W / 35.11083; -106.61000
CountryUnited States
StateNew Mexico
CountyBernalillo
Founded1706 (as Alburquerque)
Incorporated1891 (as Albuquerque)
Named forFrancisco Fernández de la Cueva, Duke of Alburquerque
Government
 • TypeMayor-council government
 • MayorTim Keller (D)
 • City Council
 • State House
 • State Senate
 • U.S. House
Area
 • City189.5 sq mi (490.9 km2)
 • Land187.7 sq mi (486.2 km2)
 • Water1.8 sq mi (4.7 km2)
Elevation
5,312 ft (1,619.1 m)
Population
 • City545,852
 • Estimate 
(2017)[2]
558,545
 • RankUS: 32nd
 • Density2,900/sq mi (1,100/km2)
 • Metro
915,927 (60th)
1,171,991 (Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas CSA)
 • Ethnicities[3]
69.7% White
4.6% Multiracial
4.6% American Indian
3.3% Black
2.6% Asian
46.7% Hispanic
DemonymsAlbuquerquean,
Burqueño[4]
Time zoneUTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP Codes
87101–87125, 87131,
87151, 87153, 87154,
87158, 87174, 87176,
87181, 87184, 87185,
87187, 87190–87199
Area codes505, 575
FIPS code35-02000
GNIS feature ID0928679
Primary AirportAlbuquerque International Sunport
ABQ (Major/International)
Secondary Airportwww.cabq.gov Edit this at Wikidata

Albuquerque (i/ (About this soundlisten) AL-bə-kur-kee; Navajo: Beeʼeldííl Dahsinil [pèːʔèltíːl tɑ̀xsɪ̀nɪ̀l]; Eastern Keres: Arawageeki; Jemez: Vakêêke; Zuni: Alo:ke:k'ya; Jicarilla Apache: Gołgéeki'yé), also known locally as Duke City and abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico and the 32nd-most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 558,545 in 2017.[5] It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which has 915,927 residents as of July 2018.[6] Albuquerque's Metropolitan statistical area is the 60th-largest in the United States. The Albuquerque MSA population includes the cities of Rio Rancho, Bernalillo, Placitas, Corrales, Los Lunas, Belen, and Bosque Farms, and forms part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,171,991 in 2016.

The city was named in honor of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, who was Viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1711.[7][8] The growing village was named by provincial governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdés. The Duke's title referred to the Spanish town of Alburquerque, in the province of Badajoz, near the border with Portugal.

Albuquerque serves as the county seat of Bernalillo County,[9] and is in north-central New Mexico. The Sandia Mountains run along the eastern side of Albuquerque, and the Rio Grande flows through the city. Albuquerque has one of the highest elevations of any major city in the U.S., ranging from 4,900 feet (1,490 m) above sea level near the Rio Grande to over 6,700 feet (1,950 m) in the foothill areas of Sandia Heights and Glenwood Hills. The civic apex is found in an undeveloped area within the Albuquerque Open Space; there, the terrain rises to an elevation of approximately 6880+ feet (2,097 m).

Albuquerque is home to Kirtland Air Force Base, Sandia National Laboratories, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, the University of New Mexico, Central New Mexico Community College, Presbyterian Medical Services, Presbyterian Health Services, the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque Biological Park, the Petroglyph National Monument, and the New Mexico Technology Corridor, a concentration of high-tech private companies and government institutions. Albuquerque is also the home of the International Balloon Fiesta, the world's largest gathering of hot-air balloons, taking place every October.[10]

History

Petroglyphs carved into basalt in the western part of the city bear testimony to an early Native American presence in the area, now preserved in the Petroglyph National Monument.

The Tanoan and Keresan peoples had lived along the Rio Grande for centuries before European settlers arrived in what is now Albuquerque. By the 1500s, there were around 20 Tiwa pueblos along a 60-mile (97 km) stretch of river from present-day Algodones to the Rio Puerco confluence south of Belen. Of these, 12 or 13 were densely clustered near present-day Bernalillo and the remainder were spread out to the south.[11]

Two Tiwa pueblos lie specifically on the outskirts of the present-day city, both of which have been continuously inhabited for many centuries: Sandia Pueblo, which was founded in the 14th century,[12] and the Pueblo of Isleta, for which written records go back to the early 17th century, when it was chosen as the site of the San Agustín de la Isleta Mission, a Catholic mission.

The Navajo, Apache, and Comanche peoples were also likely to have set camps in the Albuquerque area, as there is evidence of trade and cultural exchange between the different Native American groups going back centuries before European conquest.[13]

Albuquerque was founded in 1706 as the Spanish colonial outpost of Villa de Alburquerque.[14] Albuquerque was a farming community and strategically located military outpost along the Camino Real. The town was also the sheep-herding center of the West.[15] Spain established a presidio in Albuquerque in 1706.

After 1821, Mexico also had a military presence there. The town of Alburquerque was built in the traditional Spanish village pattern: a central plaza surrounded by government buildings, homes, and a church. This central plaza area has been preserved and is open to the public as a museum, cultural area, and center of commerce. It is referred to as "Old Town Albuquerque" or simply "Old Town". Historically it was sometimes referred to as "La Placita" (Little Plaza in Spanish). On the north side of Old Town Plaza is San Felipe de Neri Church. Built in 1793, it is one of the oldest surviving buildings in the city.[16]

After the American occupation of New Mexico, Albuquerque had a federal garrison and quartermaster depot, the Post of Albuquerque, from 1846 to 1867. During the Civil War, Albuquerque was occupied in February 1862 by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley, who soon afterward advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico. During his retreat from Union troops into Texas he made a stand on April 8, 1862, at Albuquerque and fought the Battle of Albuquerque against a detachment of Union soldiers commanded by Colonel Edward R. S. Canby. This daylong engagement at long range led to few casualties.

Downtown Albuquerque in the 1880s

When the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1880, it bypassed the Plaza, locating the passenger depot and railyards about 2 miles (3 km) east in what quickly became known as New Albuquerque or New Town. The railway company built a hospital for its workers that was later a juvenile psychiatric facility and has now been converted to a hotel.[17] Many Anglo merchants, mountain men, and settlers slowly filtered into Albuquerque creating a major mercantile commercial center which is now Downtown Albuquerque. Due to a rising rate of violent crime, gunman Milt Yarberry was appointed the town's first marshal that year. New Albuquerque was incorporated as a town in 1885, with Henry N. Jaffa its first mayor. It was incorporated as a city in 1891.[18]:232–233 Old Town remained a separate community until the 1920s when it was absorbed by Albuquerque. Old Albuquerque High School, the city's first public high school, was established in 1879. Congregation Albert, a Reform synagogue established in 1897, is the oldest continuing Jewish organization in the city.[19]

Old Albuquerque High, built in 1914 (Victorian and Gothic styles were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries)

By 1900, Albuquerque boasted a population of 8,000 inhabitants and all the modern amenities, including an electric street railway connecting Old Town, New Town, and the recently established University of New Mexico campus on the East Mesa. In 1902, the famous Alvarado Hotel was built adjacent to the new passenger depot, and it remained a symbol of the city until it was razed in 1970 to make room for a parking lot. In 2002, the Alvarado Transportation Center was built on the site in a manner resembling the old landmark. The large metro station functions as the downtown headquarters for the city's transit department. It also serves as an intermodal hub for local buses, Greyhound buses, Amtrak passenger trains, and the Rail Runner commuter rail line.

New Mexico's dry climate brought many tuberculosis patients to the city in search of a cure during the early 20th century, and several sanitaria sprang up on the West Mesa to serve them. Presbyterian Hospital and St. Joseph Hospital, two of the largest hospitals in the Southwest, had their beginnings during this period. Influential New Deal–era governor Clyde Tingley and famed Southwestern architect John Gaw Meem were among those brought to New Mexico by tuberculosis.

The McCanna–Hubbell Building, built in 1915, is one of downtown Albuquerque's many historic buildings

The first travelers on Route 66 appeared in Albuquerque in 1926, and before long, dozens of motels, restaurants, and gift shops had sprung up along the roadside to serve them. Route 66 originally ran through the city on a north–south alignment along Fourth Street, but in 1937 it was realigned along Central Avenue, a more direct east–west route. The intersection of Fourth and Central downtown was the principal crossroads of the city for decades. The majority of the surviving structures from the Route 66 era are on Central, though there are also some on Fourth. Signs between Bernalillo and Los Lunas along the old route now have brown, historical highway markers denoting it as Pre-1937 Route 66.

The establishment of Kirtland Air Force Base in 1939, Sandia Base in the early 1940s, and Sandia National Laboratories in 1949, would make Albuquerque a key player of the Atomic Age. Meanwhile, the city continued to expand outward into the Northeast Heights, reaching a population of 201,189 by 1960. In 1990, it was 384,736 and in 2007 it was 518,271. In June 2007, Albuquerque was listed as the sixth fastest-growing city in the United States.[20] In 1990, the U.S. Census Bureau reported Albuquerque's population as 34.5% Hispanic and 58.3% non-Hispanic white.[21]

On April 11, 1950, a USAF B-29 bomber carrying a nuclear weapon crashed into a mountain near Manzano Base.[22] On May 22, 1957, a B-36 accidentally dropped a Mark 17 nuclear bomb 4.5 miles from the control tower while landing at Kirtland Air Force Base. Only the conventional trigger detonated, the bomb being unarmed. These incidents were classified for decades.[23]

Albuquerque's downtown entered the same phase and development (decline, "urban renewal" with continued decline, and gentrification) as nearly every city across the United States. As Albuquerque spread outward, the downtown area fell into a decline. Many historic buildings were razed in the 1960s and 1970s to make way for new plazas, high-rises, and parking lots as part of the city's urban renewal phase. As of 2010, only recently has Downtown Albuquerque come to regain much of its urban character, mainly through the construction of many new loft apartment buildings and the renovation of historic structures such as the KiMo Theater, in the gentrification phase.

During the 21st century, the Albuquerque population has continued to grow rapidly. The population of the city proper was estimated at 528,497 in 2009, up from 448,607 in the 2000 census.[24] During 2005 and 2006, the city celebrated its tricentennial with a diverse program of cultural events.

The passage of the Planned Growth Strategy in 2002–2004 was the community's strongest effort to create a framework for a more balanced and sustainable approach to urban growth.[25]

Urban sprawl is limited on three sides—by the Sandia Pueblo to the north, the Isleta Pueblo and Kirtland Air Force Base to the south, and the Sandia Mountains to the east. Suburban growth continues at a strong pace to the west, beyond the Petroglyph National Monument, once thought to be a natural boundary to sprawl development.[26]

Because of less-costly land and lower taxes, much of the growth in the metropolitan area is taking place outside of the city of Albuquerque itself. In Rio Rancho to the northwest, the communities east of the mountains, and the incorporated parts of Valencia County, population growth rates approach twice that of Albuquerque. The primary cities in Valencia County are Los Lunas and Belen, both of which are home to growing industrial complexes and new residential subdivisions. The mountain towns of Tijeras, Edgewood, and Moriarty, while close enough to Albuquerque to be considered suburbs, have experienced much less growth compared to Rio Rancho, Bernalillo, Los Lunas, and Belen. Limited water supply and rugged terrain are the main limiting factors for development in these towns. The Mid Region Council of Governments (MRCOG), which includes constituents from throughout the Albuquerque area, was formed to ensure that these governments along the middle Rio Grande would be able to meet the needs of their rapidly rising populations. MRCOG's cornerstone project is currently the New Mexico Rail Runner Express. In October 2013, the Albuquerque Journal reported Albuquerque as the third best city to own an investment property.[27]

Other Languages
አማርኛ: አልበከርኪ
العربية: ألباكركي
Avañe'ẽ: Albuquerque
azərbaycanca: Albukerke
تۆرکجه: البوکرکی
bamanankan: Albuquerque
Bân-lâm-gú: Albuquerque
беларуская: Альбукерке
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Албукерке
български: Албакърки
bosanski: Albuquerque
brezhoneg: Albuquerque
català: Albuquerque
čeština: Albuquerque
Deutsch: Albuquerque
Ελληνικά: Αλμπουκέρκη
español: Albuquerque
euskara: Albuquerque
føroyskt: Albuquerque
français: Albuquerque
galego: Albuquerque
한국어: 앨버커키
հայերեն: Ալբուկերկե
Bahasa Indonesia: Albuquerque, New Mexico
íslenska: Albuquerque
italiano: Albuquerque
עברית: אלבקרקי
ქართული: ალბუკერკე
қазақша: Альбукерке
кырык мары: Альбукерке
Ladino: Albuquerque
latviešu: Albukerke
Lëtzebuergesch: Albuquerque
lietuvių: Albukerkė
magyar: Albuquerque
македонски: Албакерки
მარგალური: ალბუკერკე
монгол: Альбукерке
Nederlands: Albuquerque (stad)
нохчийн: Альбукерке
occitan: Albuquerque
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Albukerke
Piemontèis: Albuquerque
polski: Albuquerque
português: Albuquerque
русский: Альбукерке
саха тыла: Альбукерке
Simple English: Albuquerque
slovenčina: Albuquerque
ślůnski: Albuquerque
српски / srpski: Албукерки
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Albuquerque, New Mexico
svenska: Albuquerque
татарча/tatarça: Әлбукерке
Tsetsêhestâhese: Albuquerque
Türkçe: Albuquerque
українська: Альбукерке
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Albukwér kwé
Tiếng Việt: Albuquerque, New Mexico
Volapük: Albuquerque
Yorùbá: Albuquerque
粵語: 阿布奎基