Alawites

Alawites
Alawīyah/Alawiyyah
Zulfiqar with inscription.png
Zulfiqar, a stylised representation of the sword of Ali, is an important symbol for Alawites.
Total population
4,600,000 (2018 estimate)[1]
Founder
Ibn Nuṣayr[2] and Al-Khaṣībī[3]
Regions with significant populations
 Syria3.0 million[4]
 Turkey1 million[5]
 Lebanon100,000[6][7][8]
 Germany70,000[9][10]
Lebanon/Golan Heights3,900 live in Ghajar
 Australia2% of Lebanese-born people in Australia[11]
Languages
Arabic, Turkish

The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (Arabic: علويةAlawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a sect of Ghulat branch of Shia Islam.[12] primarily centred in Syria. The eponymously-named Alawites revere Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), considered the first Imam of the Twelver school. However, they are generally considered to be ghulat by Shia Islam.[13] The group is believed to have been founded by Ibn Nusayr during the 9th century and fully established as a religion. For this reason, Alawites are sometimes called Nusayris (Arabic: نصيريةNuṣayrīyyah), though the term has come to be used as a pejorative in the modern era. Another name, "Ansari" (Arabic: انصاريةAnṣāriyyah), is believed to be a mistransliteration of "Nusayri".

Today, Alawites represent 17 percent of the Syrian population, an increase from 11 percent in 2010 and are a significant minority in Turkey and northern Lebanon.[14] There is also a population living in the village of Ghajar in the Golan Heights. They are often confused with the Alevis of Turkey. Alawites form the dominant religious group on the Syrian coast and towns near the coast which are also inhabited by Sunnis, Christians, and Ismailis.

Alawites identify as a separate ethnoreligious group. The Qur'an is only one of their holy books and texts, and their interpretation thereof has very little in common with the Muslim interpretation. Alawite theology and rituals break from mainstream Islam in several remarkable ways. For one the Alawites drink wine as Ali's transubstantiated essence in their rituals;[15] while other Muslims abstain from alcohol, Alawites are encouraged to drink socially in moderation. Finally, they also believe in reincarnation. [16] Alawites have historically kept their beliefs secret from outsiders and non-initiated Alawites, so rumours about them have arisen. Arabic accounts of their beliefs tend to be partisan (either positively or negatively).[17] However, since the early 2000s, Western scholarship on the Alawite religion has made significant advances.[18] At the core of Alawite belief is a divine triad, comprising three aspects of the one God. These aspects, or emanations, appear cyclically in human form throughout history.

The establishment of the French Mandate of Syria marked a turning point in Alawi history. It gave the French the power to recruit Syrian civilians into their armed forces for an indefinite period and created exclusive areas for minorities, including an Alawite State. The Alawite State was later dismantled, but the Alawites continued to be a significant part of the Syrian Armed Forces. Since Hafez al-Assad took power through the 1970 Corrective Movement, the government has been dominated by a political elite led by the Alawite Al-Assad family. During the Islamist uprising in Syria in the 1970s and 1980s, the establishment came under pressure. Even greater pressure has resulted from the Syrian Civil War.

Etymology

In older sources, Alawis are often called "Ansaris". According to Samuel Lyde, who lived among the Alawites during the mid-19th century, this was a term they used among themselves. Other sources indicate that "Ansari" is simply a Western error in the transliteration of "Nusayri".[19][20] However, the term "Nusayri" had fallen out of currency by the 1920s, as a movement led by intellectuals within the community during the French Mandate sought to replace it with the modern term "Alawi".

They characterised the older name (which implied "a separate ethnic and religious identity") as an "invention of the sect's enemies", ostensibly favouring an emphasis on "connection with mainstream Islam"—particularly the Shia branch.[21] As such, "Nusayri" is now generally regarded as antiquated, and has even come to have insulting and abusive connotations. The term is frequently employed as hate speech by Sunni fundamentalists fighting against Bashar al-Assad's government in the Syrian civil war, who use its emphasis on Ibn Nusayr in order to insinuate that Alawi beliefs are "man-made" and not divinely inspired.[22]

Recent research has shown that the Alawi appellation was used by the sect's adherents since the 11th century. The following quote from Alkan (2012) illustrates this point:

"In actual fact, the name 'Alawī' appears as early as in an 11th century Nuṣayrī tract (…). Moreover, the term 'Alawī' was already used at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1903 the Belgian-born Jesuit and Orientalist Henri Lammens (d. 1937) visited a certain Ḥaydarī-Nuṣayrī sheikh Abdullah in a village near Antakya and mentions that the latter preferred the name 'Alawī' for his people. Lastly, it is interesting to note that in the above-mentioned petitions of 1892 and 1909 the Nuṣayrīs called themselves the 'Arab Alawī people' (ʿArab ʿAlevī ṭāʾifesi) 'our ʿAlawī Nuṣayrī people' (ṭāʾifatunā al-Nuṣayriyya al-ʿAlawiyya) or 'signed with Alawī people' (ʿAlevī ṭāʾifesi imżāsıyla). This early self-designation is, in my opinion, of triple importance. Firstly, it shows that the word 'Alawī' was always used by these people, as ʿAlawī authors emphasize; secondly, it hints at the reformation of the Nuṣayrīs, launched by some of their sheikhs in the 19th century and their attempt to be accepted as part of Islam; and thirdly, it challenges the claims that the change of the identity and name from 'Nuṣayrī' to 'ʿAlawī' took place around 1920, in the beginning of the French mandate in Syria (1919–1938)."[23]

The Alawites are distinct from the Alevi religious sect in Turkey, although the terms share a common etymology and pronunciation.[24][25]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Alawiete
Alemannisch: Alawiten
azərbaycanca: Nüseyrilər
বাংলা: আলাউয়ি
Bân-lâm-gú: Alawi-phài
български: Алауити
brezhoneg: Alawited
català: Alauites
čeština: Alavité (sekta)
dansk: Alawisme
Deutsch: Alawiten
eesti: Alaviidid
Ελληνικά: Αλαουίτες
español: Alauismo
Esperanto: Alavitoj
euskara: Alawi
français: Alaouites
Frysk: Alawiten
galego: Alauísmo
한국어: 알라위파
հայերեն: Ալավիներ
hrvatski: Alawiti
Bahasa Indonesia: Alawi
italiano: Alauiti
עברית: עלווים
ქართული: ალავიტები
қазақша: Нусайрилік
lietuvių: Alavitai
magyar: Alaviták
മലയാളം: അലവികൾ
मराठी: नुसैरी
Bahasa Melayu: Alawit
Nederlands: Alawieten
norsk: Alawitter
norsk nynorsk: Alawittar
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Nusayriylar
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਾਵੀ
polski: Alawizm
português: Alauitas
română: Alauism
русский: Алавиты
Scots: Alawites
Simple English: Alawites
slovenčina: Alaviti
српски / srpski: Алавити
suomi: Alaviitit
svenska: Alawiter
тоҷикӣ: Алавия
Türkçe: Nusayriler
українська: Алавіти
اردو: نصیریہ
文言: 阿拉維派
中文: 阿拉维派
Lingua Franca Nova: Alauistes