Alabama

Alabama
State of Alabama
Nickname(s): 
The Yellowhammer State, The Heart of Dixie, and The Cotton State
Motto(s): 
Latin: Audemus jura nostra defendere We dare defend our rights
Anthem: Alabama
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodAlabama Territory
Admitted to the UnionDecember 14, 1819 (22nd)
CapitalMontgomery
Largest cityBirmingham
Largest metroGreater Birmingham
Government
 • GovernorKay Ivey (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorWill Ainsworth (R)
Area
 • Total52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2)
 • Land50,744 sq mi (131,426 km2)
 • Water1,675 sq mi (4,338 km2)  3.20%
Area rank30th
Dimensions
 • Length330 mi (531 km)
 • Width190 mi (305 km)
Elevation
500 ft (150 m)
Highest elevation2,413 ft (735.5 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
Population
 • Total4,887,871 (2,018)
 • Rank24th
 • Density rank27th
 • Median household income
$48,123[4]
 • Income rank
46th
Demonym(s)Alabamian[5]
Language
 • Official languageEnglish
 • Spoken languageAs of 2010[6]
  • English 95.1%
  • Spanish 3.1%
Time zones
most of stateUTC-06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-05:00 (CDT)
Phenix City areaUTC-05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
AL
ISO 3166 codeUS-AL
Trad. abbreviationAla.
LegislatureAlabama Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. senatorsRichard Shelby (R)
Doug Jones (D)
U.S. House delegation6 Republicans
1 Democrat (alabama.gov
Alabama state symbols
Flag of Alabama.svg
Seal of Alabama.svg
Living insignia
AmphibianRed Hills salamander
BirdYellowhammer, wild turkey
ButterflyEastern tiger swallowtail
FishLargemouth bass, fighting tarpon
FlowerCamellia, oak-leaf hydrangea
Horse breedRacking horse
InsectMonarch butterfly
MammalAmerican black bear
ReptileAlabama red-bellied turtle
TreeLongleaf pine
Inanimate insignia
BeverageConecuh Ridge Whiskey
ColorsRed, white
DanceSquare dance
FoodPecan, blackberry, peach
FossilBasilosaurus
GemstoneStar blue quartz
MineralHematite
RockMarble
ShellJohnstone's junonia
SloganShare The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice,
Sweet Home Alabama
SoilBama
State route marker
Alabama state route marker
State quarter
Alabama quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols
Interactive map showing border of Alabama

Alabama (ə/) is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.[7]

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State". The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham,[8] which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana.[9]

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.[10]

Etymology

One of the entrances to Russell Cave in Jackson County. Charcoal from indigenous camp fires in the cave has been dated as early as 6550 to 6145 BC.

The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river.[11] In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form is Albaamaha).[12] The suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely.[13][14] The word's spelling varies significantly among historical sources.[14] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively, in transliterations of the term.[14] As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons.[11] Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, Allibamou.[14][15][16][17]

Sources disagree on the word's meaning. Some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").[14][18][19] The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket"[18] or "herb gatherers",[19][20] referring to clearing land for cultivation[15] or collecting medicinal plants.[20] The state has numerous place names of Native American origin.[21][22] However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language.

An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest."[14] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.[14] Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation.[11][14]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Alabama
Alemannisch: Alabama
አማርኛ: አላባማ
Ænglisc: Alabama
العربية: ألاباما
aragonés: Alabama
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܠܒܐܡܐ
arpetan: Alabama
asturianu: Alabama
Avañe'ẽ: Alavama
Aymar aru: Alabama suyu
azərbaycanca: Alabama
Bân-lâm-gú: Alabama
башҡортса: Алабама
беларуская: Алабама
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Алабама
भोजपुरी: अलबामा
Bikol Central: Alabama
Bislama: Alabama
български: Алабама
Boarisch: Alabama
བོད་ཡིག: ཨ་ལ་པ་མ།
bosanski: Alabama
brezhoneg: Alabama (stad)
буряад: Алабама
català: Alabama
Cebuano: Alabama
čeština: Alabama
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Alabama
corsu: Alabama
Cymraeg: Alabama
dansk: Alabama
davvisámegiella: Alabama
Deutsch: Alabama
eesti: Alabama
Ελληνικά: Αλαμπάμα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Alabàma
español: Alabama
Esperanto: Alabamo
euskara: Alabama
فارسی: آلاباما
Fiji Hindi: Alabama
føroyskt: Alabama
français: Alabama
Frysk: Alabama
Gaeilge: Alabama
Gaelg: Alabama
Gagauz: Alabama
Gàidhlig: Alabama
galego: Alabama
ગુજરાતી: અલાબામા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌼𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Alabama
хальмг: Алабама
한국어: 앨라배마주
Hausa: Alabama
Hawaiʻi: ‘Alapama
हिन्दी: अलाबामा
hornjoserbsce: Alabama
hrvatski: Alabama
Ido: Alabama
Igbo: Alabama
Ilokano: Alabama
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আলাবামা
Bahasa Indonesia: Alabama
interlingua: Alabama
Interlingue: Alabama
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐋᓛᐹᒫ
Iñupiak: Alapaama
isiXhosa: I-Alabhama
íslenska: Alabama
italiano: Alabama
עברית: אלבמה
Jawa: Alabama
Kabɩyɛ: Alabamaa
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಲಬಾಮ
Kapampangan: Alabama
ქართული: ალაბამა
қазақша: Алабама
kernowek: Alabama
Kiswahili: Alabama
Kreyòl ayisyen: Alabama
kurdî: Alabama
кырык мары: Алабама (штат)
Ladino: Alabama
لۊری شومالی: آلاباما
Latina: Alabama
latviešu: Alabama
Lëtzebuergesch: Alabama
lietuvių: Alabama
Ligure: Alabàma
Limburgs: Alabama
Lingua Franca Nova: Alabama
la .lojban.: alybamas
lumbaart: Alabama
magyar: Alabama
मैथिली: अलाबामा
македонски: Алабама
Malagasy: Alabama
മലയാളം: അലബാമ
Māori: Alabama
मराठी: अलाबामा
მარგალური: ალაბამა
مصرى: الاباما
مازِرونی: آلاباما
Bahasa Melayu: Alabama
Minangkabau: Alabama
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Alabama
Mirandés: Alabama
монгол: Алабама
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အလာဘားမားပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Alabama
Dorerin Naoero: Alabama
Nederlands: Alabama
Nedersaksies: Alabama
नेपाली: अलाबामा
नेपाल भाषा: अलाबामा
日本語: アラバマ州
Napulitano: Alabama
нохчийн: Алабама
Nordfriisk: Alabama
norsk: Alabama
norsk nynorsk: Alabama
Novial: Alabama
occitan: Alabama
олык марий: Алабама
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Alabama
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਾਬਾਮਾ
पालि: अलाबामा
پنجابی: الاباما
Papiamentu: Alabama
Piemontèis: Alabama
Plattdüütsch: Alabama
polski: Alabama
português: Alabama
Qaraqalpaqsha: Alabama
română: Alabama
rumantsch: Alabama
Runa Simi: Alabama suyu
русский: Алабама
саха тыла: Алабама
Gagana Samoa: Alabama
संस्कृतम्: अलाबामा
sardu: Alabama
Scots: Alabama
Seeltersk: Alabama
shqip: Alabama
sicilianu: Alabama
සිංහල: ඇලබාමා
Simple English: Alabama
سنڌي: الاباما
slovenčina: Alabama
slovenščina: Alabama
ślůnski: Alabama
Soomaaliga: Alabama
کوردی: ئەلاباما
српски / srpski: Алабама
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alabama
suomi: Alabama
svenska: Alabama
Tagalog: Alabama
தமிழ்: அலபாமா
Taqbaylit: Alabama
татарча/tatarça: Алабама
తెలుగు: అలబామా
тоҷикӣ: Алабама
Türkçe: Alabama
Türkmençe: Alabama
українська: Алабама
اردو: الاباما
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Alabama Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Alabama
Volapük: Alabama
Winaray: Alabama
吴语: 阿拉巴马
ייִדיש: אלאבאמא
Zazaki: Alabama
Zeêuws: Alabama
žemaitėška: Alabama