State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Yellowhammer State, The Heart of Dixie, and The Cotton State
Motto(s): Latin: Audemus iura nostra defendere We dare to defend our rights
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Official language English
Spoken languages

As of 2010 [1]

  • English 95.1%
  • Spanish 3.1%
Demonym Alabamian [2]
Capital Montgomery
Largest city Birmingham
Largest metro Birmingham metropolitan area
Area Ranked 30th
 • Total 52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km2)
 • Width 190 miles (305 km)
 • Length 330 miles (531 km)
 • % water 3.20
 • Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 • Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Population Ranked 24th
 • Total 4,863,300 (2016 est.) [3]
 •  Density 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 est.)/km2)
Ranked 27th
 •  Median household income $44,509 [4] (47th)
 • Highest point Mount Cheaha [5] [6] [7]
2,413 ft (735.5 m)
 • Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico [6]
Sea level
Before statehood Alabama Territory
Admission to Union December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Governor Kay Ivey ( R)
Lieutenant Governor Vacant
Legislature Alabama Legislature
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house House of Representatives
U.S. Senators Richard Shelby (R)
Doug Jones ( D)
U.S. House delegation 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat ( list)
Time zones  
 • most of state Central: UTC −6/ −5
 • Phenix City area Eastern: UTC −5/ −4
ISO 3166 US-AL
Abbreviations AL, Ala.
Alabama state symbols
Flag of Alabama.svg
Seal of Alabama.svg
Living insignia
Amphibian Red Hills salamander
Bird Yellowhammer, wild turkey
Butterfly Eastern tiger swallowtail
Fish Largemouth bass, fighting tarpon
Flower Camellia, oak-leaf hydrangea
Horse breed Racking horse
Insect Monarch butterfly
Mammal American black bear
Reptile Alabama red-bellied turtle
Tree Longleaf pine
Inanimate insignia
Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
Colors Red, white
Dance Square dance
Food Pecan, blackberry, peach
Fossil Basilosaurus
Gemstone Star blue quartz
Mineral Hematite
Rock Marble
Shell Johnstone's junonia
Slogan Share The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice,
Sweet Home Alabama,
"Heart of Dixie"
Soil Bama
Song " Alabama"
State route marker
Alabama state route marker
State quarter
Alabama quarter dollar coin
Released in 2003
Lists of United States state symbols

Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. [8]

Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the " Cotton State". The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham, [9] which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. [10]

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology. [11]


One of the entrances to Russell Cave in Jackson County. Charcoal from indigenous camp fires in the cave has been dated as early as 6550 to 6145 BC.

The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. [12] In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form is Albaamaha). [13] The suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. [14] [15] The word's spelling varies significantly among historical sources. [15] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively, in transliterations of the term. [15] As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. [12] Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, Allibamou. [15] [16] [17] [18]

Sources disagree on the word's meaning. Some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather"). [15] [19] [20] The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" [19] or "herb gatherers", [20] [21] referring to clearing land for cultivation [16] or collecting medicinal plants. [21] The state has numerous place names of Native American origin. [22] [23] However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language.

An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." [15] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. [15] Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. [12] [15]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Alabama
አማርኛ: አላባማ
Ænglisc: Alabama
العربية: ألاباما
aragonés: Alabama
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܐܠܒܐܡܐ
arpetan: Alabama
asturianu: Alabama
Avañe'ẽ: Alavama
Aymar aru: Alabama suyu
azərbaycanca: Alabama
Bân-lâm-gú: Alabama
башҡортса: Алабама
беларуская: Алабама
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Алабама
भोजपुरी: अलबामा
Bikol Central: Alabama
Bislama: Alabama
български: Алабама
Boarisch: Alabama
བོད་ཡིག: ཨ་ལ་པ་མ།
bosanski: Alabama
brezhoneg: Alabama (stad)
буряад: Алабама
català: Alabama
Cebuano: Alabama
čeština: Alabama
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Alabama
corsu: Alabama
Cymraeg: Alabama
dansk: Alabama
davvisámegiella: Alabama
Deutsch: Alabama
eesti: Alabama
Ελληνικά: Αλαμπάμα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Alabàma
español: Alabama
Esperanto: Alabamo
euskara: Alabama
فارسی: آلاباما
Fiji Hindi: Alabama
føroyskt: Alabama
français: Alabama
Frysk: Alabama
Gaeilge: Alabama
Gaelg: Alabama
Gagauz: Alabama
Gàidhlig: Alabama
galego: Alabama
ગુજરાતી: અલાબામા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌹𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌼𐌰
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Alabama
хальмг: Алабама
한국어: 앨라배마 주
Hawaiʻi: ‘Alapama
हिन्दी: अलाबामा
hornjoserbsce: Alabama
hrvatski: Alabama
Ido: Alabama
Igbo: Alabama
Ilokano: Alabama
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: আলাবামা
Bahasa Indonesia: Alabama
interlingua: Alabama
Interlingue: Alabama
ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ/inuktitut: ᐋᓛᐹᒫ
Iñupiak: Alapaama
íslenska: Alabama
italiano: Alabama
עברית: אלבמה
Basa Jawa: Alabama
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಅಲಬಾಮ
Kapampangan: Alabama
ქართული: ალაბამა
қазақша: Алабама
kernowek: Alabama
Kiswahili: Alabama
Kreyòl ayisyen: Alabama
Kurdî: Alabama
кырык мары: Алабама (штат)
Ladino: Alabama
لۊری شومالی: آلاباما
Latina: Alabama
latviešu: Alabama
Lëtzebuergesch: Alabama
lietuvių: Alabama
Ligure: Alabàma
Limburgs: Alabama
la .lojban.: alybamas
lumbaart: Alabama
magyar: Alabama
मैथिली: अलाबामा
македонски: Алабама
Malagasy: Alabama
മലയാളം: അലബാമ
Māori: Alabama
मराठी: अलाबामा
მარგალური: ალაბამა
مصرى: الاباما
مازِرونی: آلاباما
Bahasa Melayu: Alabama
Baso Minangkabau: Alabama
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Alabama
Mirandés: Alabama
монгол: Алабама
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အလာဘားမားပြည်နယ်
Nāhuatl: Alabama
Dorerin Naoero: Alabama
Nederlands: Alabama
Nedersaksies: Alabama
नेपाली: अलाबामा
नेपाल भाषा: अलाबामा
日本語: アラバマ州
Napulitano: Alabama
нохчийн: Алабама
Nordfriisk: Alabama
norsk: Alabama
norsk nynorsk: Alabama
Novial: Alabama
occitan: Alabama
олык марий: Алабама
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Alabama
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਅਲਾਬਾਮਾ
पालि: अलाबामा
پنجابی: الاباما
Papiamentu: Alabama
Piemontèis: Alabama
Plattdüütsch: Alabama
polski: Alabama
português: Alabama
Qaraqalpaqsha: Alabama
română: Alabama
rumantsch: Alabama
Runa Simi: Alabama suyu
русский: Алабама
саха тыла: Алабама
Gagana Samoa: Alabama
संस्कृतम्: अलाबामा
sardu: Alabama
Scots: Alabama
Seeltersk: Alabama
shqip: Alabama
sicilianu: Alabama
සිංහල: ඇලබාමා
Simple English: Alabama
slovenčina: Alabama
slovenščina: Alabama
ślůnski: Alabama
Soomaaliga: Alabama
کوردی: ئەلاباما
српски / srpski: Алабама
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Alabama
suomi: Alabama
svenska: Alabama
Tagalog: Alabama
தமிழ்: அலபாமா
Taqbaylit: Alabama
татарча/tatarça: Алабама
తెలుగు: అలబామా
Türkçe: Alabama
Türkmençe: Alabama
українська: Алабама
اردو: الاباما
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Alabama Shitati
Tiếng Việt: Alabama
Volapük: Alabama
Winaray: Alabama
吴语: 阿拉巴马
ייִדיש: אלאבאמא
Zazaki: Alabama
žemaitėška: Alabama
Kabɩyɛ: Alabamaa