Akkad (city)

Map of the Near East showing the extent of the Akkadian Empire and the general area in which Akkad was located

Akkad or Agade (cuneiform 𒌵𒆠 URIKI) was the name of a Mesopotamian city and its surrounding area.[1]Akkad was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, which was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC.

Its location is unknown, although there are a number of candidate sites, mostly situated east of the Tigris, roughly between the modern cities of Samarra and Baghdad.[2]

Textual sources

Before the decipherment of cuneiform in the 19th century, the city was known only from a single reference in Genesis 10:10[3] where it is written אַכַּד‬ ( 'Akkad), rendered in the KJV as Accad. The name is given in a list of cities of Nimrod in Sumer (Shinar).

Sallaberger and Westenholz (1999) cite the number of 160 known mentions of the city in the extant cuneiform corpus, in sources ranging in date from the Old Akkadian period itself down to the Neo-Babylonian period. The name is spelled logographically as URIKI, or phonetically as a-ga-dèKI, variously transcribed into English as Akkad, Akkade or Agade.[4] The etymology of the name is unclear, but not of Akkadian (Semitic) origin. Various suggestions have proposed Sumerian, Hurrian or Lullubean etymologies. The non-Akkadian origin of the city's name suggests that the site may have already been occupied in pre-Sargonic times, as also suggested by the mentioning of the city in one pre-Sargonic year-name.[5]

Black-and-white photograph of a statue consisting of an inscribed, round pedestal on top of which sits a seated nude male figure of which only the legs and lower torso are preserved.
The Bassetki Statue, found in Dohuk Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan, dated to the reign of Naram-Sin (c.2254–2218) with an inscription mentioning the construction of a temple in Akkad

The inscription on the Bassetki Statue records that the inhabitants of Akkad built a temple for Naram-Sin after he had crushed a revolt against his rule.[6]

The main goddess of Akkad was Ishtar-Astarte (Inanna), who was called ‘Aštar-annunîtum or "Warlike Ishtar".[7] Her husband Ilaba was also revered in Akkad. Ishtar and Ilaba were later worshipped at Sippar in the Old Babylonian period, possibly because Akkad itself had been destroyed by that time.[4] The city was certainly in ruins by the mid-first millennium BC.[8]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Akkad
አማርኛ: አካድ
العربية: أكاد (مدينة)
башҡортса: Аккаде
беларуская: Акадэ
български: Акад (град)
bosanski: Akad
català: Accad
čeština: Akkad
dansk: Akkad
Deutsch: Akkad
eesti: Akad
español: Agadé
Esperanto: Akado
فارسی: اکد (شهر)
français: Akkad (ville)
galego: Acad
한국어: 아카드
hrvatski: Akad
עברית: אכד
ქართული: აქადი
Кыргызча: Аккад шаары
lietuvių: Akadas
magyar: Agade
മലയാളം: അക്കാദ്
Nederlands: Akkad (stad)
日本語: アッカド
norsk: Akkad
norsk nynorsk: Akkad
occitan: Agadé
português: Acádia (cidade)
română: Akkad
русский: Аккаде
Simple English: Akkad
slovenčina: Akkad (mesto)
slovenščina: Akad (mesto)
Soomaaliga: Akkad
српски / srpski: Акад
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Akad
suomi: Akkad
svenska: Akkad
தமிழ்: அக்காத்
українська: Аккад
اردو: عکادی