Agriculture

Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer

Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock.[1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first.

Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, and technological developments have sharply increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage. Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, deforestation, antibiotic resistance, and growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are widely used, although they are banned in some countries.

The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels and raw materials (such as rubber). Food crop classes include cereals (grains), vegetables, fruits, oils, meat, milk, fungi and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the centuries.

Etymology and scope

The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, and cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing".[2] While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and ambrosia beetle also cultivate crops.[3] Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services".[4] Thus defined, it includes arable farming, horticulture, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice often excluded.[4]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Landbou
Alemannisch: Landwirtschaft
العربية: زراعة
aragonés: Agricultura
armãneashti: Ayriculturã
asturianu: Agricultura
Avañe'ẽ: Ñemitỹ
Aymar aru: Yapuchawi
azərbaycanca: Kənd təsərrüfatı
تۆرکجه: اکینچیلیک
bamanankan: Sɛnɛkɛ
Bân-lâm-gú: Lông-gia̍p
Basa Banyumasan: Pertanian
башҡортса: Ауыл хужалығы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Сельская гаспадарка
भोजपुरी: खेती
Bikol Central: Pag-ooma
Boarisch: Landwiatschoft
བོད་ཡིག: སོ་ནམ།
bosanski: Poljoprivreda
brezhoneg: Gounezerezh
буряад: Хүдөө ажахы
català: Agricultura
Чӑвашла: Ял хуҫалӑхӗ
Cebuano: Agrikultura
čeština: Zemědělství
chiShona: Kurima
Cymraeg: Amaeth
dansk: Jordbrug
español: Agricultura
Esperanto: Agrikulturo
estremeñu: Agricurtura
euskara: Nekazaritza
فارسی: کشاورزی
føroyskt: Landbúnaður
français: Agriculture
Frysk: Lânbou
furlan: Agriculture
Gaeilge: Talmhaíocht
Gaelg: Eirinys
Gagauz: Ekincilik
Gàidhlig: Àiteachas
galego: Agricultura
ગુજરાતી: કૃષિ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Nùng-ngia̍p
한국어: 농업
Hausa: Noma
हिन्दी: कृषि
hrvatski: Poljoprivreda
Ilokano: Agrikultura
Bahasa Indonesia: Pertanian
interlingua: Agricultura
isiXhosa: Ezolimo
íslenska: Landbúnaður
italiano: Agricoltura
עברית: חקלאות
Basa Jawa: Tetanèn
Kabɩyɛ: Haɖaʋ
kalaallisut: Nunaateqarneq
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೃಷಿ
kaszëbsczi: Gbùrzëzna
Kiswahili: Kilimo
Kreyòl ayisyen: Agrikilti
kurdî: Çandinî
Кыргызча: Айыл чарба
Ladino: Agrikultura
latgaļu: Solsaimesteiba
Latina: Agricultura
latviešu: Lauksaimniecība
lietuvių: Žemės ūkis
Limburgs: Landboew
Lingua Franca Nova: Cultiva
Luganda: Ebyamalimiro
lumbaart: Agricoltura
मैथिली: कृषि
македонски: Земјоделство
മലയാളം: കൃഷി
मराठी: शेती
მარგალური: ოფუტეშ მეურნობა
مصرى: زراعه
مازِرونی: کشاورزی
Bahasa Melayu: Pertanian
Mirandés: Agricultura
မြန်မာဘာသာ: စိုက်ပျိုးရေး
Nāhuatl: Mīllahcayōtl
Nederlands: Landbouw
Nedersaksies: Laandbouw
नेपाली: कृषि
नेपाल भाषा: बुँज्या
日本語: 農業
Nordfriisk: Büürerei
norsk: Landbruk
norsk nynorsk: Landbruk
Nouormand: Agritchultuthe
Novial: Agrikulture
occitan: Agricultura
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କୃଷି
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qishloq xoʻjaligi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਖੇਤੀਬਾੜੀ
Pälzisch: Landwirtschaft
پنجابی: وائی بیجی
پښتو: کرنه
Patois: Agrikolcha
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កសិកម្ម
Tok Pisin: Egrikalsa
Plattdüütsch: Bueree
polski: Rolnictwo
português: Agricultura
română: Agricultură
rumantsch: Agricultura
Runa Simi: Allpa llamk'ay
саха тыла: Агрикултуура
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱪᱟᱥ
संस्कृतम्: कृषिः
Scots: Agricultur
Seeltersk: Buuräi
shqip: Bujqësia
sicilianu: Agricultura
Simple English: Farming
سنڌي: زراعت
slovenčina: Poľnohospodárstvo
slovenščina: Kmetijstvo
ślůnski: Bauerstwo
Soomaaliga: Beer
کوردی: وەرزێری
српски / srpski: Пољопривреда
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Poljoprivreda
Basa Sunda: Agrikultur
suomi: Maatalous
svenska: Jordbruk
Tagalog: Agrikultura
தமிழ்: வேளாண்மை
татарча/tatarça: Авыл хуҗалыгы
తెలుగు: వ్యవసాయం
ትግርኛ: ሕርሻ
тоҷикӣ: Аграрӣ
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᏗᎦᎶᎪᏗ
Türkçe: Tarım
Türkmençe: Oba hojalygy
اردو: زراعت
vèneto: Agricoltura
vepsän kel’: Maižanduz
Tiếng Việt: Nông nghiệp
文言:
Winaray: Agrikultura
吴语: 农业
Xitsonga: Vurimi
粵語: 農業
žemaitėška: Žemies ūkis
中文: 农业