Agaricus

Agaricus
Agaricus campestris.jpg
A. campestris
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Fungi
Division:Basidiomycota
Class:Agaricomycetes
Order:Agaricales
Family:Agaricaceae
Genus:Agaricus
L.:Fr. emend Karst.
Type species
Agaricus campestris
L.:Fr.
Species
Synonyms[1]
  • Amanita Dill. ex Boehm. (1760)
  • Fungus Tourn. ex Adans. (1763)
  • Hypophyllum Paulet (1808)
  • Myces Paulet (1808)
  • Agaricus trib. Psalliota Fr. (1821)
  • Pratella (Pers.) Gray (1821)
  • Psalliota (Fr.) P.Kumm. (1871)

Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with possibly over 300 members worldwide.[2][3] The genus includes the common ("button") mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and the field mushroom (Agaricus campestris), the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West.

Members of Agaricus are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores. They are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae, by their chocolate-brown spores. Members of Agaricus also have a stem or stipe, which elevates it above the object on which the mushroom grows, or substrate, and a partial veil, which protects the developing gills and later forms a ring or annulus on the stalk.

Taxonomy

For many years, members of the genus Agaricus were given the generic name Psalliota, and this can still be seen in older books on mushrooms. All proposals to conserve Agaricus against Psalliota or vice versa have so far been considered superfluous.[4]

Several origins of Agaricus have been proposed. It possibly originates from ancient Sarmatia Europaea, where people Agari, promontory Agarum and a river Agarus were known (all located on the northern shore of Sea of Azov, probably, near modern Berdiansk in Ukraine).[5][6][7] Note also Greek ἀγαρικ[8] όν, "a sort of tree fungus" (There has been an Agaricon Adans. genus, treated by Donk in Persoonia 1:180.)

Dok reports Linnaeus' name is devalidated (so the proper author citation apparently is "L. per Fr., 1821") because Agaricus was not linked to Tournefort's name. Linnaeus places both Agaricus Dill. and Amanita Dill. in synonymy, but truly a replacement for Amanita Dill., which would require A. quercinus, not A. campestris be the type. This question is compounded because Fries himself used Agaricus roughly in Linnaeus' sense (which leads to issues with Amanita), and A. campestris was eventually excluded from Agaricus by Karsten and was apparently in Lepiota at the time Donk wrote this, commenting that a type conservation might become necessary.[9]

The alternate name for the genus, Psalliota, derived from the Greek psalion/ψάλιον, "ring", was first published by Fries (1821) as trib. Psalliota. The type is Agaricus campestris (widely accepted, except by Earle, who proposed A. cretaceus). Paul Kummer (not Quélet, who merely excluded Stropharia) was the first to elevate the tribe to a genus. Psalliota was the tribe containing the type of Agaricus, so when separated, it should have caused the rest of the genus to be renamed, but this is not what happened.[10]

Other Languages
العربية: غاريقون
aragonés: Agaricus
asturianu: Xampiñón
azərbaycanca: Şampinyon
башҡортса: Аҡ көләпәрә
беларуская: Шампіньён
български: Печурка (род)
català: Agaricus
Cebuano: Agaricus
Deutsch: Champignons
эрзянь: Навоз панго
español: Agaricus
Esperanto: Agariko
euskara: Agaricus
فارسی: غاریقون
français: Agaric
galego: Champiñón
한국어: 아가리쿠스
Bahasa Indonesia: Agaricus
interlingua: Agaricus
íslenska: Kempur
italiano: Agaricus
ქართული: ქამასოკო
қазақша: Агарикус
Ladino: Shampinyon
Latina: Agaricus
latviešu: Atmatenes
lietuvių: Pievagrybis
magyar: Csiperkék
日本語: ハラタケ属
Picard: Àrgàri
polski: Agaricus
português: Agaricus
română: Agaricus
Runa Simi: Quncha
русский: Шампиньон
Scots: Agaricus
slovenščina: Kukmak
svenska: Champinjoner
தமிழ்: அகாரிகஸ்
українська: Печериця
Tiếng Việt: Agaricus
Winaray: Agaricus
中文: 伞菌属