Origin and usage
The majority view among scholars is that the book of Genesis dates from the Persian Empire (the 5th and 4th centuries BCE), but the absence from the rest of the Hebrew Bible of all the other characters and incidents mentioned in chapters 1-11 of Genesis, (Adam appears only in chapters 1-5, with the exception of a mention at the beginning of the Books of Chronicles where, as in Genesis, he heads the list of Israel's ancestors) has led a sizable minority to the conclusion that Genesis 1-11 was composed much later, possibly in the 3rd century BCE. There are still other scholars who hold to the traditional view, as espoused by Jesus in Mark 10, that this account was written by Moses as handed down to him from God. 
The Bible uses the word אָדָם ( 'adam ) in all of its senses: collectively ("mankind", 1:27), individually (a "man", 2:7), gender nonspecific ("man and woman", 5:1,2), and male (2:23-24). In Genesis 1:27 "adam" is used in the collective sense, and the interplay between the individual "Adam" and the collective "humankind" is a main literary component to the events that occur in the Garden of Eden, the ambiguous meanings embedded throughout the moral, sexual, and spiritual terms of the narrative reflecting the complexity of the human condition. Genesis 2:7 is the first verse where "Adam" takes on the sense of an individual man (the first man), and the context of sex and gender is absent; the gender distinction of "adam" is then reiterated in Genesis 5:1–2 by defining "male and female".
A recurring literary motif is the bond between Adam and the earth (adamah): God creates Adam by molding him out of clay in the final stages of the creation narrative. After the loss of innocence, God curses Adam and the earth as punishment for his disobedience. Adam and humanity is cursed to die and return to the earth (or ground) from which he was formed. This "earthly" aspect is a component of Adam's identity, and Adam's curse of estrangement from the earth seems to describe humankind's divided nature of being earthly yet separated from nature. God himself who took of the dust from all four corners of the earth with each color (red, black, white, and green) then created Adam therewith, where the soul of Adam is the image of God.