Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year worldwide. Over a third are
unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion.
 Most abortions result from unintended pregnancies.
 In the United Kingdom, 1 to 2% of abortions are done due to genetic problems in the fetus.
 A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the
gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses.
 Specific procedures may also be selected due to legality, regional availability, and doctor or a woman's personal preference.
Reasons for procuring induced abortions are typically characterized as either therapeutic or elective. An abortion is medically referred to as a therapeutic abortion when it is performed to save the life of the pregnant woman; prevent harm to the woman's
mental health; terminate a pregnancy where indications are that the child will have a significantly increased chance of premature morbidity or mortality or be otherwise
disabled; or to
selectively reduce the number of fetuses to lessen health risks associated with
 An abortion is referred to as an elective or voluntary abortion when it is performed at the request of the woman for non-medical reasons.
 Confusion sometimes arises over the term "elective" because "
elective surgery" generally refers to all scheduled surgery, whether medically necessary or not.
Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of an embryo or fetus before the 24th
week of gestation.
 A pregnancy that ends before 37 weeks of gestation resulting in a
live-born infant is known as a "
premature birth" or a "preterm birth".
 When a fetus dies
in utero after
viability, or during
delivery, it is usually termed "
 Premature births and stillbirths are generally not considered to be miscarriages although usage of these terms can sometimes overlap.
Only 30% to 50% of conceptions progress past the
 The vast majority of those that do not progress are lost before the woman is
aware of the conception,
 and many pregnancies are lost before medical practitioners can detect an embryo.
 Between 15% and 30% of known pregnancies end in clinically apparent miscarriage, depending upon the age and health of the pregnant woman.
 80% of these spontaneous abortions happen in the first trimester.
The most common cause of spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is
chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo or fetus,
 accounting for at least 50% of sampled early pregnancy losses.
 Other causes include
vascular disease (such as
diabetes, other hormonal problems, infection, and abnormalities of the uterus.
 Advancing maternal age and a woman's history of previous spontaneous abortions are the two leading factors associated with a greater risk of spontaneous abortion.
 A spontaneous abortion can also be caused by accidental
trauma; intentional trauma or stress to cause miscarriage is considered induced abortion or