Abdulmejid I

Abdulmejid I
عبد المجيد اول
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Knight of the Garter
Sultan Abdulmecid Pera Museum 3 b.jpg
A painting of Abdulmejid at the Pera Museum in Istanbul.
31st Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign2 July 1839 – 25 June 1861
PredecessorMahmud II
SuccessorAbdülaziz
Born25 April 1823[1][2]
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died25 June 1861(1861-06-25) (aged 38)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
BurialYavuz Selim Mosque, Fatih, Istanbul
ConsortsServetseza Kadın
Şevkefza Valide Sultan
Verdicenan Kadın
Zeynifelek Hanım
Nükhetsezâ Hanım
Tirimüjgan Kadın
Nesrin Hanım
Düzdidil Kadın
Gülcemal Kadın
Mahitab Kadın
Ceylanyar Hanım
Nergizu Hanım
Navekmisal Hanım
Bezmiara Kadın
Nalanıdil Hanım
Şayeste Hanım
Serfiraz Hanım
Gülüstü Hanım
Rahime Perestu Valide Sultan
Issuesee below
Full name
Abdul Mecid bin Mahmud
DynastyOttoman
FatherMahmud II
MotherBezmiâlem Sultan
ReligionSunni Islam
TughraAbdulmejid I عبد المجيد اول's signature

Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اولAbdülmecîd-i evvel; 23/25 April 1823 – 25 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.[3] His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdulmejid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdulmejid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms which were prepared by his father and effectively started the modernization of the Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdulmejid, was named after him.

Early life

Abdulmejid was born at the Beşiktaş Sahil Palace or at the Topkapı Palace, both in Constantinople.[4] His mother was his father's first wife in 1839, Valide Sultan Bezmiâlem, originally named Suzi (1807–1852), either a Circassian[5] or Georgian slave.[6][7][8]

Abdulmejid received a European education and spoke fluent French, the first sultan to do so.[1] Like Abdülaziz who succeeded him, he was interested in literature and classical music. Like his father Mahmud II, he was an advocate of reforms and was lucky enough to have the support of progressive viziers such as Mustafa Reşit Pasha, Mehmet Emin Ali Paşa and Fuad Pasha. Throughout his reign he had to struggle against conservatives who opposed his reforms. Abdulmejid was also the first sultan to directly listen to the public's complaints on special reception days, which were usually held every Friday without any middlemen. Abdulmejid toured the empire's territories to see in person how the Tanzimat reforms were being applied. He travelled to İzmit, Mudanya, Bursa, Gallipoli, Çanakkale, Lemnos, Lesbos and Chios in 1844 and toured the Balkan provinces in 1846.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Abdülmecid I
azərbaycanca: Əbdülməcid
Bân-lâm-gú: Abdülmecid 1-sè
беларуская: Абдул-Меджыд I
български: Абдул Меджид I
bosanski: Abdulmedžid I
brezhoneg: Abdülmecit Iañ
català: Abdülmecit
čeština: Abdülmecid I.
español: Abdülmecit I
Esperanto: Abd-ul-Meĝid
français: Abdülmecid Ier
հայերեն: Աբդուլ Մեջիդ
Bahasa Indonesia: Abd-ul-Mejid I
italiano: Abdülmecid I
ქართული: აბდულმეჯიდ I
қазақша: I Әбділмәжит
latviešu: Abdulmedžids I
македонски: Абдул Меџит I
Bahasa Melayu: Abd-ul-Mejid I
Nederlands: Abdülmecit
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Abdulmajid I
português: Abdul Mejide I
română: Abdul-Medjid
slovenčina: Abdülmecid I.
српски / srpski: Абдулмеџид I
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Abdul Medžid I
Türkçe: Abdülmecid
Türkmençe: Abdulmejit
українська: Абдул-Меджид I
Tiếng Việt: Abdül Mecid I
Zazaki: Abdul Mecid