ATP synthase

ATP Synthase
Atp synthase.PNG
Molecular model of ATP synthase determined by X-ray crystallography. Stator is not shown here.
EC number
CAS number 9000-83-3
IntEnz IntEnz view
ExPASy NiceZyme view
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / QuickGO

ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the most commonly used "energy currency" of cells for most organisms. It is formed from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The overall reaction catalyzed by ATP synthase is:

  • ADP + Pi + H+out ⇌ ATP + H2O + H+in

The formation of ATP from ADP and Pi is energetically unfavorable and would normally proceed in the reverse direction. In order to drive this reaction forward, ATPase couples ATP synthesis during cellular respiration to an electrochemical gradient created by the difference in proton (H+) concentration across the mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or the plasma membrane in bacteria. During photosynthesis in plants, ATP is synthesized by ATPase using a proton gradient created in the thylakoid lumen through the thylakoid membrane and into the chloroplast stroma.

ATP synthase consists of two main subunits, FO and F1, which has a rotational motor mechanism allowing for ATP production. [1] [2] Because of its rotating subunit ATP Synthase is a molecular machine.


The F1 fraction derives its name from the term "Fraction 1" and FO (written as a subscript letter "o", not "zero") derives its name from being the binding fraction for oligomycin, a type of naturally-derived antibiotic that is able to inhibit the FO unit of ATP synthase. [3] [4] These functional regions consist of different protein subunits — refer to tables.

Other Languages
български: АТФ синтаза
bosanski: ATP sintaza
català: ATP sintetasa
čeština: ATP syntáza
Deutsch: ATP-Synthase
español: ATP sintasa
français: ATP synthase
galego: ATP sintase
한국어: ATP 합성효소
Հայերեն: ԱԵՖ-սինթազ
Bahasa Indonesia: ATP sintase
עברית: ATP סינתאז
Basa Jawa: Sintase ATP
Bahasa Melayu: ATP sintase
日本語: ATP合成酵素
polski: Syntaza ATP
português: ATP sintase
русский: АТФ-синтаза
Simple English: ATP synthase
slovenčina: ATP syntáza
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: H+ transportujuća dvosektorna ATPaza
Basa Sunda: ATP sintase
svenska: ATP-syntas
Türkçe: ATP-sentaz
українська: АТФ-синтаза
Tiếng Việt: ATP synthase