Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted
3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several
Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
The following standards are typically branded 3G:
UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service) system, first offered in 2001, standardized by
3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by
GSM (Global Systems for Mobile)
2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
- The original and most widespread radio interface is called
W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access).
TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only offered in China.
- The latest UMTS release,
HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by
3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the
IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release
EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.
The above systems and radio interfaces are based on
spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the
GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"),
DECT cordless phones and
Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.
The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard:
EDGE, a revision by the
3GPP organization to the older
GSM based transmission methods, utilizing the same switching nodes, base station sites and frequencies as GPRS, but new base station and cellphone RF circuits. It is based on the three times as efficient
8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the original
GMSK modulation scheme. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cell-phones.
EDGE combined with the
GPRS 2.5G technology is called
EGPRS, and allows peak data rates in the order of 200 kbit/s, just as the original
UMTS WCDMA versions, and thus formally fulfills the IMT2000 requirements on 3G systems. However, in practice EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system, but a
2.9G system. EDGE shows slightly better
system spectral efficiency than the original UMTS and
CDMA2000 systems, but it is difficult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth of 200 kHz, and it is thus a dead end.
EDGE was also a mode in the
IS-136 TDMA system, today ceased.
Evolved EDGE, the latest revision, has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400 kbit/s upstream, but is not commercially used.
- The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, created and revised by the
3GPP. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware, although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/
- W-CDMA is the most common deployment, commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band. A few others use the 850, 900 and 1,900 MHz bands.
HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades to the original W-CDMA standard and offers speeds of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 Mbit/s up. HSPA is backward-compatible with and uses the same frequencies as W-CDMA.
HSPA+, a further revision and upgrade of HSPA, can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using a combination of air interface improvements as well as multi-carrier HSPA and
MIMO. Technically though, MIMO and DC-HSPA can be used without the "+" enhancements of HSPA+
CDMA2000 system, or IS-2000, including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or EVDO), standardized by
3GPP2 (differing from the 3GPP), evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system, is used especially in North America, China, India, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa.
- CDMA2000 1x Rev. E has an increased voice capacity (in excess of three times) compared to Rev. 0
EVDO Rev. B offers downstream peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s while Rev. C enhanced existing and new terminal user experience.
While DECT cordless phones and
Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements, they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones.
Break-up of 3G systems
The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation;
WiMAX was added in 2007.
There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backward-compatible extensions to pre-existing
2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones utilise UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The latter group is the
UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developed standards
DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.
EDGE fulfills the 3G specifications, most GSM/UMTS phones report EDGE ("2.75G") and UMTS ("3G") functionality.