2A46 125 mm gun

2A46 125 mm gun
2A46M1 in Motovilikha Plants museum 2.jpg
2A46M1 in Motovilikha Plants museum
TypeSmoothbore tank gun
Place of originUSSR
Service history
In serviceSince 1970
Specifications
Weight2A46: 2675 kg2A46M: 2400 kg
Length2A46: 6350 mm2A46M: 6381 mm

Caliber125 mm
Muzzle velocityAPDS: 1715-1800 m/s

HEAT: 905-950 m/s

HE: 760 m/s
Effective firing rangeAPDS / HEAT: 3000 m

HE: 4000 m

ATGM: 5000 m

The 2A46 (also called D-81TM) is a 125 mm/L48 smoothbore cannon of Soviet origin used in several main battle tanks. It was designed by OKB-9 in Sverdlovsk.

Description

It was developed by the Spetstekhnika Design Bureau in Ekaterinburg in the 1960s originally for the T-64A tank. They were subsequently manufactured at Artillery Plant No. 9 in Ekaterinburg and Motovilikha in Perm. Versions include 2A46, 2A46M, 2A46M-1, 2A46M-2, 2A46M-4, 2A46M-5 and the Ukrainian KBA-3.

The 2A46 can fire armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) and high-explosive fragmentation (HEF) projectiles. The ammunition for the 2A46 gun is in two pieces: the projectile is loaded first, followed by a separate propellant charge.

The early version of the 2A46 suffered from a short barrel life, but this was subsequently rectified on the 2A46M version.

The Ukrainian KBA guns are derived from the 2A46 gun.

Projectile specifications for 2A46 and 2A46M[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Note: There are different ways to measure penetration value. NATO uses the 50% (This means that 50% of the shell had to go through the plate), while the Soviet/Russia standard is higher (80% had to go through). According to authorities like Paul Lakowski, the difference in performance can reach as much as 8%[7]
Shell index Projectile index Charge index Shell weight, kg Projectile weight, kg Charge weight, kg Penetration, mm/deg[note 1]
APDS shells
3VBM3 3BM9/3BM10 4Zh40 19.6 5.67 5.0/5.0+3.4 140/60°
3VBM6 3BM12/3BM13 4Zh40 19.6 5.67 5.0/5.0+3.4 150/60°
3VBM7 3BM15/3BM16 4Zh40 20.0 5.9 5.0/5.0+3.4 150/60°
3VBM8 3BM17/3BM18 4Zh40 20.0 5.9 5,0/5,0+3,4 150/60°
3VBM9 3BM22/3BM23 4Zh40 20.2 6.55 5,0/5,0+3,4 170/60°
3VBM11 3BM26/3BM27 4Zh63 20.43 7.05 5.3/5.3+2.9 200/60°
3VBM12 3BM29/3BM30 210/60°
3VBM13 3BM32/3BM38 4Zh63 20.55 7.05 5.3/5.3+2.9 250/60°
3VBM17 3BM42/3BM44 4Zh63 20.4 7.05 5.3/5.3+2.9 230/60°
3VBM19 3BM42M/3BM44M 4Zh63 20.4 7.05 5.3/5.3+2.9 270/60°
3VBM20 3BM46/3BM48 4Zh63 20.4 7.05 5.3/5.3+2.9 300/60°
125-mm KE[note 2] 6.7 5.5/5.5+3.3
ZPS 125 mm APFSDS-T[note 3] 4Zh63 5.855/5.855+3.0 230/60°
125-I[note 4] 23.0 7.37 220/61,5°
125-II[note 5] 23.0 7.44 300/60°
HEAT Shells
3VBK7 3BK12(M) 4Zh40 29.0 19.0 5.0 220/60°
3VBK10 3BK14(M) 4Zh40 29.0 19.0 5.0 220/60°
3VBK16 3BK18(M) 4Zh40 29.0 19.0 5.0 260/60°
3VBK17 3BK21B 4Zh52 29.0 19.0 10.0 260/60°
3VBK25 3BK29(M) 4Zh52 28.4 18.4 10.0 300/60°
3VBK27 3BK31 19.0 350/60°[note 6]
125-mm HEAT[note 7] 19.0 200/60°
125-mm HEAT-T[note 8] 33.0 23.0 10,0
125-mm HEAT-T[note 9] 19.5 200/60°
M88[note 10]
HE shells
3VOF22 3OF19 4Zh40 33.0 23.0 5.0
3VOF36 3OF26 4Zh40 33.0 23.0 5.0
Practice HEAT shells
3VP5 3P11 4Zh40 29.0 19.0 5.0
Practice APDS shells
3VP6 3P31/3P35 4Zh40 19.5 5.2 5.0/5.0+4.3
Practice HE shells
3VP24 3P23 4Zh40 33.0 23.0 5.0
Training shells
3VPU4 3PU12 4PU105 19.1 9.6
3VPU5 3PU13 4PU105 28.5 19.0
3VPU6 3PU14 4PU105 32.5 23.0
Inert 4Kh33 13
Guided weapons for 2A46-2, 2A46M and their variants
ATGMs[8][9][10][11][12]
9M112 9D129 33.2 250/60°
9M112M 300/60°
9M112M2 31.1 24 300..350/60°
9M124 33.6 27.9 450/60°
3UBK14 9M119 9Kh949 23.3 16.5 7.1 325..375/60°
Sokol-1 4Zh63 23.0 5.3 350/60°
Explosive ATGMs[13][14]
3UBK14F 9M119F 9Kh949 23.6 16.5 7.1
3UBK14F1 9M119F1 9Kh949 23.3 16.5 6.8
Guided weapons for 2A46M and its variants
3UBK20 9M119M 9Kh949 24.3 17.2 7.1 325..375/60°
3UBK20M 9M119M1 9Kh949 24.3 17.2 7.1 425..450/60°
AP shells for 2A46M-5
3VBM22 3BM59 4Zh96 750/0°
3VBM23 3BM60 4Zh96 700/0°
??? 3BM69 900/0°
??? 3BM70 800/0°
Other Languages
čeština: 2A46
Deutsch: D-81
español: 2A46 (D-81T)
français: 2A46
italiano: 2A46
lietuvių: 2A46
русский: 2А46
suomi: 2A46M
українська: 2А46