2020 Irish general election

2020 Irish general election

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159 of 160 seats in Dáil Éireann[a]
80 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout62.9% Decrease 2.2pp
 First partySecond partyThird party
 Micheal Martin (official portrait) (cropped).jpgMary Lou McDonald (official portrait) (cropped).jpgLeo Varadkar 2016.jpg
LeaderMicheál MartinMary Lou McDonaldLeo Varadkar
PartyFianna FáilSinn FéinFine Gael
Leader since26 January 201110 February 20182 June 2017
Leader's seatCork South-CentralDublin CentralDublin West
Last election44 seats, 24.3%23 seats, 13.8%50 seats, 25.5%
Seats before452247
Seats won38[a]3735
Seat changeDecrease 7Increase 15Decrease 12
Popular vote484,320535,595455,584
Percentage22.2%24.5%20.9%
SwingDecrease 2.1%Increase 10.7%Decrease 4.7%

 Fourth partyFifth partySixth party
 Eamon Ryan 2020 (cropped).jpgBrendan Howlin (official portrait) (cropped).jpgRóisín Shortall TD and Catherine Murphy TD cropped.jpg
LeaderEamon RyanBrendan HowlinCatherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
PartyGreen PartyLabour PartySocial Democrats
Leader since27 May 201020 May 201615 July 2015
Leader's seatDublin Bay SouthWexfordKildare North
Dublin North-West
Last election2 seats, 2.7%7 seats, 6.6%3 seats, 3.0%
Seats before372
Seats won1266
Seat changeIncrease 9Decrease 1Increase 4
Popular vote155,70095,58863,404
Percentage7.1%4.4%2.9%
SwingIncrease 4.4%Decrease 2.2%Decrease 0.1%

 Seventh partyEighth partyNinth party
 
S–PBP
Peadar Tóibín (official portrait) (cropped).jpg
I4C
LeaderCollective leadershipPeadar TóibínNone
PartySolidarity–PBPAontúInds. 4 Change
Leader sincen/a28 January 2019n/a
Leader's seatn/aMeath Westn/a
Last election6 seats, 3.9%New party4 seats, 1.5%
Seats before611
Seats won511
Seat changeDecrease 1Steady 0Steady 0
Popular vote57,42040,9178,421
Percentage2.6%1.9%0.4%
SwingDecrease 1.3%New partyDecrease 1.1%

2020 Irish general election - Results.svg
Results of the election by constituency.

Taoiseach before election

Leo Varadkar
Fine Gael

Elected Taoiseach

TBD
TBD

The 2020 Irish general election took place on Saturday 8 February, to elect the 33rd Dáil Éireann, the lower house of Ireland's parliament. All but one of the 160 seats were contested, with the Ceann Comhairle (speaker) being returned automatically. The members, Teachtaí Dála (TDs), were elected by single transferable vote from all of the multi-member constituencies. The election was called following the dissolution of the 32nd Dáil by the president, at the request of the Taoiseach, Leo Varadkar, on 14 January 2020. It was the first election since 1918 to be held on a weekend.

The election was an unprecedented three-way race, with the three largest parties each winning a share of the vote between 20% and 25%. Fianna Fáil finished with 38 seats (including the Ceann Comhairle). Sinn Féin made significant gains; it received the most first-preference votes, and won 37 seats, the party's best result since it took its current form in 1970. Fine Gael, the governing party led by Varadkar, came third both in seats (35) and in first-preference votes. Fianna Fáil's seats dropped to 37 following the Ceann Comhairle election.

International news outlets have described the result as a historic break from the two-party system, as it was the first time in almost a century that neither Fianna Fáil nor Fine Gael won the most votes. Furthermore, the combined vote share of the two traditional main parties fell to a historic low.[1][2] The leaders of those parties had long ruled out forming a coalition government with Sinn Féin.

To secure a majority, a government would need the support of at least 80 TDs. Any government would therefore need the support of more than two parties or a large group of Independent TDs, or a formal confidence and supply arrangement with another party that would agree to abstain on votes of confidence and the budget.

Background

Since the 2016 Irish general election, Fine Gael had led a minority government with the support of Independent TDs, including the Independent Alliance. It relied on a confidence and supply agreement with Fianna Fáil.

On 3 December 2019, a motion of no confidence in the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government Eoghan Murphy proposed by Catherine Murphy for the Social Democrats was defeated, with 53 votes in favour to 56 votes against and 35 registered abstentions.[3] On 9 January 2020, Independent TD Michael Collins called for a motion of no confidence in the Minister for Health Simon Harris.[4] On 14 January, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar sought a dissolution of the Dáil which was granted by the president, with the 33rd Dáil to convene on 20 February at 12 noon.[5][6] The election was set for 8 February, which was to be the first time a general election was held on a Saturday since 1918.[7][8]

Electoral system

Dáil constituencies used in the 2020 election.

Members of Dáil Éireann known as TDs (Dáil deputies) were elected by single transferable vote (STV) from 39 constituencies with between three and five seats. Voters complete a paper ballot, numbering candidates 1, 2, 3, etc. in order of their preference. Ballot boxes are sent to the constituency count centre after polls close and are counted the following morning. Voters may mark as many or as few preferences as they wish. Each ballot is initially credited to its first-preference candidate but may be transferred on later counts to the next available preference where the first preference candidate is elected or eliminated.[9] As the outgoing Ceann Comhairle, Seán Ó Fearghaíl, did not announce his retirement, he was automatically returned, and the remaining 159 of the 160 seats were up for election.[10]

Constituency boundary changes

A Constituency Commission, convened in July 2016 under the provisions of the Electoral Act 1997 with Judge Robert Haughton as chair, made recommendations on changes to constituency boundaries after publication of initial population data from the 2016 census.[11][12] The Commission had some discretion but was constitutionally bound to allow no more than a ratio of 30,000 people per elected member, and was required by law to recommend constituencies of three, four or five seats, and to avoid – as far as was practicable – breaching county boundaries. The Commission report, released on 27 June 2017, recommended an increase in the number of TDs from 158 to 160 elected in 39 constituencies.[13][14] These changes were implemented by the Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil Constituencies) Act 2017.[15][16] The election of the 33rd Dáil was therefore held using the new boundaries, for 160 seats.

Retiring incumbents

The following members of the 32nd Dáil did not seek re-election.

ConstituencyDeparting TD[b]PartyFirst electedDate confirmed
Cavan–MonaghanCaoimhghín Ó CaoláinSinn Féin19977 March 2018[17]
ClareMichael HartyIndependent201613 January 2020[18]
Cork North-CentralJonathan O'BrienSinn Féin20116 January 2020[19]
Cork South-WestJim DalyFine Gael201120 September 2019[20]
Dublin Bay NorthTommy BroughanIndependent199222 January 2020[21]
Dublin Bay NorthFinian McGrathIndependent200214 January 2020[22]
Dublin CentralMaureen O'SullivanIndependent200916 January 2020[23]
Dublin FingalBrendan RyanLabour Party20118 January 2020[24]
Dún LaoghaireMaria BaileyFine Gael201622 January 2020[25]
Dún LaoghaireSeán BarrettFine Gael19816 December 2019[26]
KerryMartin FerrisSinn Féin200218 November 2017[27]
Limerick CityMichael NoonanFine Gael198118 May 2017[28]
Longford–WestmeathWillie PenroseLabour Party19925 July 2018[29]
LouthGerry AdamsSinn Féin201118 November 2017[30]
MayoEnda KennyFine Gael19755 November 2017[31]
Sligo–LeitrimTony McLoughlinFine Gael201128 June 2018[32]
WaterfordJohn DeasyFine Gael200228 November 2017[33]
WaterfordJohn HalliganIndependent201115 January 2020[34]

Campaign

The campaign officially began after the dissolution of Dáil Éireann on 14 January 2020 and lasted until polling day on 8 February 2020. the Polling was just over a week after the United Kingdom (which includes Northern Ireland) withdrew from the European Union, making it the first major election to be held within the EU since Brexit. The election took place on a Saturday for the first time since the 1918 election.[35] Leo Varadkar said that the change of day was to prevent school closures (many schools in Ireland are used as polling stations) and to make it easy for third-level students and those working away from home to vote.[36]

Nomination of candidates closed on Wednesday, 22 January. A record number of women were nominated, with 162 of the 531 candidates.[37] This was the first Irish general election in which there was a female candidate running in every constituency. If a party does not have a minimum of 30% male and 30% female candidates, it forfeits half of their state funding. At close of nominations, Fine Gael had 30.5% female candidates, Fianna Fáil had 31%, Labour had 32%, Sinn Féin had 33%, People Before Profit had 38%, the Green Party had 41%, and the Social Democrats had 57%, all passing the quota.[38]

Parties contesting a general election for the first time included Aontú, Irish Freedom Party, National Party and RISE (as part of S–PBP).

Voter registration via the Supplementary Register of Voters closed on 23 January, with very high registration taking place on the last day – Dublin City Council, for example, reporting 3,500 registrations on the final day allowed, and a total of 14,000 additional registrations, reported to be twice the normal amount for a general election.[39]

On 3 February 2020, the returning officer for Tipperary cancelled the writ of election there, as required by Section 62 of the Electoral Act 1992, after the death of candidate Marese Skehan.[40] However, the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government formed a view that the 1992 provision breached the constitutional requirement that elections take place within 30 days of a Dáil dissolution, so on 5 February he issued a Special Difficulty Order allowing the election to proceed on the same date as other constituencies.[41][42][43] Skehan's name remained on the ballot paper.[44][45]

Party manifestos and slogans

Party/groupManifesto (external link)Other slogan(s)Refs
Fine GaelA future to look forward to"Building a Republic of Opportunity, Taking Ireland Forward Together."[46][47]
Fianna FáilAn Ireland for all / Éire do chách[46][47]
Sinn FéinGiving workers and families a break"Standing up for Irish unity", "Time for change"[46][48]
Labour PartyBuilding an equal society[46]
S–PBP[c]People Before Profit[c]Planet Before Profit"Socialism for the 21st century"[49]
Solidarity[c]"Real change, not spare change"[50]
RISE[c][51]
Social DemocratsHope for better. Vote for better."Invest in better"[46]
Green PartyWant Green? Vote Green!"The future belongs to all of us"[46][52]
AontúThe political system is broken. Let's fix it."Think outside the political cartel"[53]

Television debates

2020 Irish general election debates
DateBroadcasterModerator(s)Participants —   Name  Participant    N  Party not invited/did not participate Notes
FGFFSFLabS–PBPGPSDAon
22 JanVirgin OnePat KennyVaradkarMartinNNNNNN[54]
27 JanRTÉ OneClaire ByrneVaradkarMartinMcDonaldHowlinBoyd BarrettRyanShortallN[55]
30 JanVirgin OneIvan Yates
Matt Cooper
VaradkarMartinMcDonaldHowlinBarryRyanMurphyN[56]
4 FebRTÉ OneDavid McCullagh
Miriam O'Callaghan
VaradkarMartinMcDonaldNNNNN
6 FebRTÉ OneDavid McCullagh
Miriam O'Callaghan
NNNHowlinCoppingerRyanShortallTóibín
6 FebVirgin MediaIvan Yates
Matt Cooper
CoveneyCallearyDohertyNNNNNDebate among Deputy Leaders
6 Feb[57]TG4Páidí Ó LionáirdKyneCallearyÓ LaoghaireNÓ CeannabháinGarveyÓ TuathailMhic Gib[58]Debate in Irish

The first leaders' debate took place on Virgin Media One on 22 January, but was restricted to Leo Varadkar and Micheál Martin.[59]

A leaders' debate featuring seven party leaders/representatives took place on RTÉ One on Monday 27 January, from NUI Galway.[60][61]

On 27 January, RTÉ published an article explaining its rationale as to whom it invited to appear in televised leadership debates.[62] Aontú announced that it would seek a High Court injunction in order to prevent the broadcast of the leaders' debate scheduled for the same day but later in the day they announced that they would not proceed with the action.[63]

A further RTÉ debate was scheduled for 4 February, again on RTÉ One, and featuring only Varadkar and Martin. Mary Lou McDonald, leader of Sinn Féin, had objected to her exclusion, and Sinn Féin threatened legal action if it was excluded from this debate.[64] On 3 February, RTÉ announced that it had invited McDonald to participate in the final debate, in part due to Sinn Féin's standing in recent opinion polls, and Sinn Féin confirmed that it would accept the invitation.[65][66]

A final debate between the leader of smaller parties took place on 6 February on RTÉ One.

Opinion polls

Opinion polls on voting intentions were conducted regularly. Polls were published on an approximately monthly basis by The Sunday Business Post (which uses the Red C polling company) and The Sunday Times (which used the Behaviour and Attitudes polling company for all of its polls since 2016 until its final poll prior to the election, for which it used Panelbase).

Less frequent polls were published by The Irish Times, Sunday Independent, Irish Mail on Sunday, RTÉ News, and others.

The chart below depicts the results of opinion polls since the previous general election.

Ireland Opinion Polls 2020.png

Results

Map showing the party winning the most first-preference votes in each constituency.

Polls opened at 07:00 UTC and closed at 22:00 UTC. The total poll was down by 2.2% to 62.9% compared to the previous election, despite it being held on a Saturday. However, severe weather warnings were in place over much of the country due to Storm Ciara.

Counting of the votes commenced at 09:00 UTC on 9 February and concluded at 23:59 UTC on 10 February, with Galway East being the first constituency to report and Cavan-Monaghan being the final constituency to report.[67][68]

The results of the election showed a close contest between three parties. Sinn Féin which won 37 seats, a gain of fifteen over the previous election. Fianna Fáil also won 37 seats, eight fewer than they had. Fine Gael, the party of Taoiseach Leo Varadkar, won 35 seats, twelve fewer than they had. Among the smaller parties, the Green Party showed the largest gains, increasing from three to twelve seats, a gain of nine over the previous election. In terms of popular vote, despite their close second place finish in terms of parliamentary seats, Sinn Féin received the most first-preference votes nationwide, though no single party secured more than 25% of the first-preference votes, nor more than 25% of the seats. According to DCU political scientist Eoin O'Malley, it was the most fragmented Dáil ever, with the effective number of parties at 5.95.[69]

Seán Ó Fearghaíl was returned automatically as outgoing Ceann Comhairle; as he was a Fianna Fáil member, this gave the party 38 TDs. That number dropped to 37 when Ó Fearghaíl was re-elected as Ceann Comhairle on the first day of the 33rd Dáil.[70]

Journalists commented on the effects of Sinn Féin's late surge and unexpectedly high first-preference vote. John Drennan listed eleven constituencies where it might have won another seat had it run an extra candidate.[71] Marie O'Halloran observed that Sinn Féin transfers affected the outcome of 21 constituencies, favouring other left-wing parties.[72] Sean Murray noted that Solidarity–People Before Profit benefited most from Sinn Féin transfers.[73]

The Social Democrats had their best-ever result, with 6 seats; they attributed this to focusing their efforts on winnable seats rather than fielding candidates in every constituency.[74]

The Green Party also had their best-ever result, with 12 seats, reflecting increased interest in environmentalism and climate change in Ireland.[75][76]

Minor far-right and anti-immigration parties (the National Party, Irish Freedom Party, Renua and Anti-Corruption Ireland) fared very poorly, winning less than two percent wherever they stood. However, some independent politicians who had expressed anti-immigration views were elected, like Verona Murphy and Noel Grealish.[77][78]

33rd Irish general election – 8 February 2020[79][80][81][82][83]
Dáil Éireann after 2020 GE.svg
PartyLeaderFirst-preference votesSeats
Votes% FPv[d]Swing (pp)Cand.
[85]
2016Out.Elected
2020
Change
Sinn FéinMary Lou McDonald535,59524.5Increase10.7422322
37 / 160 (23%)
Increase14
Fianna FáilMicheál Martin484,32022.2Decrease2.2844445
37 / 160 (23%)
Decrease7
Fine GaelLeo Varadkar455,58420.9Decrease4.7824947
35 / 160 (22%)
Decrease14
Green PartyEamon Ryan155,7007.1Increase4.43923
12 / 160 (8%)
Increase10
Labour PartyBrendan Howlin95,5884.4Decrease2.23177
6 / 160 (4%)
Decrease1
Social DemocratsCatherine Murphy
Róisín Shortall
63,4042.9Decrease0.12032
6 / 160 (4%)
Increase3
Solidarity–PBP[c]

People Before Profit
Solidarity
RISE
Collective leadership57,420

40,220
12,723
4,477
2.6

1.8
0.6
0.2
Decrease1.3

Decrease0.2
Decrease1.3
new
37

27
9
1
6

3
3
new
6

3
2
1
5 / 160 (3%)
3 / 160 (1.9%)
1 / 160 (0.6%)
1 / 160 (0.6%)
Decrease1

Steady
Decrease2
new
AontúPeadar Tóibín40,9171.9new26New1
1 / 160 (0.6%)
Increase1
Inds. 4 ChangeNone8,4210.4Decrease1.1441
1 / 160 (0.6%)
Decrease3
RenuaVacant6,1700.3Decrease1.91100
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Irish FreedomHermann Kelly5,4950.3new11New0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
National PartyJustin Barrett4,7730.2new10New0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Irish DemocraticKen Smollen2,6110.1Increase0.1100
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Workers' PartyMichael Donnelly1,1950.1Decrease0.1400
0 / 160 (0%)
-
United PeopleJeff Rudd430.0new1New0
0 / 160 (0%)
-
Independent266,52912.2Decrease3.7[e]12519[e]22[e]
19 / 160 (12%)
Steady0
Ceann ComhairleSeán Ó FearghaílN/AN/AN/A111
1 / 160 (0.6%)
0
Total Valid2,183,76599.20
Spoilt votes18,4270.80
Total2,202,192100552[85]158157[b]160Increase2
Registered voters/Turnout3,502,04462.88

Voting summary

First-preference vote
Sinn Féin
24.53%
Fianna Fáil
22.18%
Fine Gael
20.86%
Green
7.13%
Labour
4.38%
Social Democrats
2.90%
Solidarity–People Before Profit
2.63%
Aontú
1.90%
Independents 4 Change
0.39%
Others
0.90%
Independent
12.20%

Seats summary

Dáil seats
Fianna Fáil
23.125%
Sinn Féin
23.125%
Fine Gael
21.875%
Green
7.500%
Labour
3.750%
Social Democrats
3.750%
Solidarity–People Before Profit
3.125%
Aontú
0.625%
Independents 4 Change
0.625%
Ceann Comhairle
0.625%
Independent
11.875%

TDs who lost their seats

PartySeats lostNameConstituencyOther offices heldYear elected
Fianna Fáil
16
Bobby AylwardCarlow–Kilkenny2007[f]
John BrassilKerry2016
Declan BreathnachLouth2016
Malcolm ByrneWexford2019
Pat CaseyWicklow2016
Shane CassellsMeath West2016
Lisa ChambersMayo2016
John CurranDublin Mid-West2002[g]
Timmy DooleyClare2007
Pat "the Cope" GallagherDonegal2016[h]
Eugene MurphyRoscommon–Galway2016
Margaret Murphy O'MahonyCork South-West2016
Kevin O'KeeffeCork East2016
Fiona O'LoughlinKildare South2016
Frank O'RourkeKildare North2016
Eamon ScanlonSligo–Leitrim2007[i]
Fine Gael
12
Pat BreenClareMinister of State for Trade, Employment, Business, EU Digital Single Market and Data Protection2002
Catherine ByrneDublin South-CentralMinister of State for Health Promotion2007
Marcella Corcoran KennedyLaois–Offaly2011
Michael W. D'ArcyWexfordMinister of State at the Department of Finance2007[j]
Pat DeeringCarlow–Kilkenny2011
Regina DohertyMeath EastMinister for Employment Affairs and Social Protection2011
Andrew DoyleWicklowMinister of State for Food, Forestry and Horticulture2007
Seán KyneGalway WestGovernment Chief Whip2011
Mary Mitchell O'ConnorDún LaoghaireMinister of State for Higher Education2011
Tom NevilleLimerick County2016
Kate O'ConnellDublin Bay South2016
Noel RockDublin North-West2016
Labour Party
2
Joan BurtonDublin West1992[k]
Jan O'SullivanLimerick City1998
Solidarity–PBP
1
Ruth CoppingerDublin West2014
Independent
4
Séamus HealyTipperary2000[l]
Shane RossDublin RathdownMinister for Transport, Tourism and Sport2011
Kevin "Boxer" MoranLongford–WestmeathMinister of State for the Office of Public Works and Flood Relief2016
Katherine ZapponeDublin South-WestMinister for Children and Youth Affairs2016
Total35

Government formation

As there are 160 members of Dáil Éireann (including the Ceann Comhairle who casts a vote only in the case of a tie), 80 TDs are needed to form a governing coalition. A smaller group could form a minority government if they can negotiate a confidence and supply agreement with another party.

During the campaign, the leaders of both Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil ruled out forming a coalition government with Sinn Féin.[86]

Some in Fianna Fáil were reported to favour going into coalition with Sinn Féin over renewing an arrangement with Fine Gael. Sinn Féin leader Mary Lou McDonald announced her intention to try to form a coalition government without either Fine Gael or Fianna Fáil. However, she did not rule out a coalition with either party.[86] After the results came in on 10–11 February, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar continued to rule out a Fine Gael coalition with Sinn Féin, while Micheál Martin changed tack and left open the possibility of a Fianna Fáil–Sinn Féin coalition or a "grand coalition" with Fine Gael.[87] On 12 February, Varadkar conceded that Fine Gael would likely go into opposition. Varadkar argued that since Sinn Féin finished with the highest vote, it had the responsibility to build a coalition that allows it to keep its campaign promises, and that Fine Gael was "willing to step back" to allow Sinn Féin to do so.[88]

Sinn Féin have also stated an intention to form a broad left coalition; combined, left-leaning parties have 67 seats (37 Sinn Féin, 12 Green, 6 Labour, 6 Social Democrats, 5 Solidarity–PBP, and 1 Independents 4 Change), but other parties of the left have raised doubts about such a prospect. In addition, Sinn Féin would need the support of at least 13 independents (out of 19 total) to form a government.[87][89]

A Fianna Fáil–Fine Gael grand coalition would have 72 seats and so would need support from smaller parties or independents to form a government. A Fianna Fáil–Sinn Féin coalition would have 74 seats, which would also require smaller party or independent support.[90] These three options in an opinion poll the week after the election received respective support from 26%, 26%, and 19% of voters, with 15% preferring another election.[91]

On 20 February, Varadkar resigned, but said that he would continue in a caretaker role until a new government is formed. It was reported that Fine Gael was prepared to go into opposition.[92] On 11 March, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael entered detailed talks in order to establish a grand coalition, potentially with the Green Party, and deal with the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Ireland.[93][94] As of 17 March, those talks were still scheduled for later that week. However, the Green Party suggested that it would not join such a coalition, preferring a national unity government.[95]

Coalition proposalPolitical partiesSeatsCombinedWorking
majority
Broad left coalitionSinn Féin3767−13
Green12
Labour6
Social Democrats6
Solidarity–PBP5
Independents 4 Change1
Fianna Fáil–Fine GaelFianna Fáil3772−8
Fine Gael35
Fianna Fáil–Sinn FéinFianna Fáil3774−6
Sinn Féin37
Pollster/client(s)Date(s)
conducted
Sample
size
Broad left coalitionFianna Fáil–Fine GaelFianna Fáil–Sinn FéinNew electionLead
Sunday Business Post/Red C12–14 Feb3,70026%26%19%15%Tie

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Includes the Ceann Comhairle Seán Ó Fearghaíl, elected to Dáil Éireann in 2002 for Fianna Fáil, who is returned automatically.
  2. ^ a b On 19 May 2018, Dara Murphy of Cork North-Central announced his intention to retire at the next general election. However, he subsequently resigned from Dáil Éireann on 3 December 2019, leaving his seat vacant at dissolution.
  3. ^ a b c d e People Before Profit, Solidarity and RISE contested this election as Solidarity–People Before Profit. People Before Profit had 27 candidates, Solidarity had 9 candidates, and RISE had 1 candidate. They issued separate manifestos.
  4. ^ Parties are entitled to public funding proportionate to their first-preference vote (subject to a minimum 2% FPv).[84]
  5. ^ a b c The 2016 figures include 4.2% first-preference votes and six TDs from the Independent Alliance, which is not a political party.
  6. ^ Aylward lost his seat in 2011 but regained it in 2015.
  7. ^ Curran lost his seat in 2011 but regained it in 2016.
  8. ^ Gallagher was previously a TD from 1981 to 1997, and from 2002 to 2009.
  9. ^ Scanlon lost his seat in 2011 but regained it in 2016.
  10. ^ D'Arcy lost his seat in 2011 but regained it in 2016.
  11. ^ Burton lost her seat in 1997 but regained it in 2002.
  12. ^ Healy lost his seat in 2007 but regained it in 2011.

References

  1. ^ "‘Seismic break for two-party system’: UK and US media react to Election 2020". The Irish Times. 10 February 2020.
  2. ^ "Ireland’s two-party system shaken by Sinn Fein surge". Associated Press. 7 February 2020.
  3. ^ "Confidence in the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government: Motion (Resumed) [Private Members] – Votes – Dáil Éireann (32nd Dáil) – 3 December 2019". Houses of the Oireachtas. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  4. ^ Ó Cionnaith, Fiachra (9 January 2020). "TD calling for no-confidence vote in Simon Harris". RTÉ News. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  5. ^ "President signs warrant for the dissolution of the 32nd Dáil". President of Ireland. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Forógra (Proclamation)" (PDF). Iris Oifigiúil (5): 90. 17 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Minister Murphy makes an order appointing Saturday 8 February as the General election polling day". Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. 14 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Irish election: first-ever Saturday general election vote". BBC News. 8 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 24 March 2019.; "Electoral Act 1992 [Part XIX]". Irish Statute Book. 5 November 1992. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  10. ^ Kelly, Olivia (10 February 2020). "Election 2020: Sean Ó Fearghaíl (Fianna Fáil)". The Irish Times. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  11. ^ "Commission established to review Dáil and European Constituencies". Department of Housing, Planning and Local Government. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  12. ^ "Constituency Commission". www.constituency-commission.ie.
  13. ^ "Introduction and summary of recommendations" (PDF). Constituency Commission 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  14. ^ "Dáil constituencies where no change is recommended" (PDF). Constituency Commission 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  15. ^ "Electoral (Amendment) (Dáil Constituencies) Act 2017". Irish Statute Book. 23 December 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  16. ^ "The January polls and the Impact of the Constituency Commission 2017 report changes: Constituency-level analysis of the Irish Times-Ipsos MRBI (24th January 2018) and Sunday Times- Behaviour & Attitudes (21st January 2018) opinion polls". Irish Elections: Geography, Facts and Analyses. 26 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
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