2018 California wildfires

2018 California wildfires
West Coast MODIS via EOSDIS 20180801.png
Garner Complex
Natchez Fire
Carr Fire
Mendocino  Complex
Ferguson Fire
An August 1, 2018, satellite image of the wildfires burning in Northern California and Southern Oregon; smoke can be seen trailing northeastward over Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho
Total fires8,527
Total area1,893,913 acres (766,439 ha)
Cost>$3.5 billion (2018 USD)[4][5][6][7]
Fatalities98 civilians and 6 firefighters killed[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Non-fatal injuriesAt least 80 total
← 2017
2019 →

The 2018 wildfire season was the deadliest and most destructive wildfire season on record in California, with a total of 8,527 fires burning an area of 1,893,913 acres (766,439 ha), the largest amount of burned acreage recorded in a fire season, according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire) and the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC), as of December 21.[1][2][3] The fires have caused more than $3.5 billion (2018 USD) in damages, including $1.792 billion in fire suppression costs.[4][5][6][7] Through the end of August 2018, Cal Fire alone spent $432 million on operations.[17] The Mendocino Complex Fire burned more than 459,000 acres (186,000 ha), becoming the largest complex fire in the state's history, with the complex's Ranch Fire surpassing the Thomas Fire and the Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 to become California's single-largest recorded wildfire.[18][19]

In mid-July to August 2018, a series of large wildfires erupted across California, mostly in the northern part of the state, including the destructive Carr Fire and the Mendocino Complex Fire. On August 4, 2018, a national disaster was declared in Northern California, due to the extensive wildfires burning there.[20]

In November 2018, strong winds aggravated conditions in another round of large, destructive fires that occurred across the state. This new batch of wildfires includes the Woolsey Fire and the Camp Fire, the latter of which killed at least 86 people[16] with 3[16] still unaccounted for as of 4 December 2018. It destroyed more than 18,000 structures, becoming both California's deadliest and most destructive wildfire on record.

Increased fire susceptibility

Many different factors led to the 2018 California wildfire season becoming so destructive. A combination of an increased amount of natural fuel and compounding atmospheric conditions linked to global warming led to a series of destructive fires. Recent research on wildfires in California, published in August 2018, predicted an increase in the number of wildfires as a consequence of climate change.[21] Humans have been recorded as the main cause of wildfires in California. Various causes, both intentional and accidental, such as arson, unattended campfires, fireworks, cigarettes, cars, and power lines have contributed to this increase in the number of fires. Updating equipment, ensuring forest maintenance is being completed, and having oversight by state and federal governments are some of the mitigating actions that can reduce the risk of wildfires.

Increase in fuel

A direct contributor to the 2018 California wildfires was an increase in dead tree fuel.[22] By December 2017, there was a record 129 million dead trees in California.[23]

Atmospheric conditions

Stanford Earth System Science Professor Noah Diffenbaugh stated that atmospheric conditions for California wildfires are expected to worsen in the future because of the effects of climate change in California and that "what we're seeing over the last few years in terms of the wildfire season in California [is] very consistent with the historical trends in terms of increasing temperatures, increasing dryness, and increasing wildfire risk." Other experts agreed, saying that global warming is to blame for these extreme weather conditions. Global warming led to higher temperatures and less rain, creating a drier landscape that gave fires more fuel to burn longer and stronger.[24]

Residential construction in the wildland-urban interface

A wildland–urban interface (or WUI) refers to the zone of transition between unoccupied land and human development. Communities that are within 0.5 miles (0.80 km) of the zone may also be included. These lands and communities adjacent to and surrounded by wildlands are at risk of wildfires.[25] Since the 1990s, over 43% of new residential buildings have been constructed in this area. In some areas, the amount of new residences in those areas is 80%.[26] In the past, when these areas burned, no residences were lost, but now residences are present, which end up being destroyed.[27]

Other Languages