2017–18 Iranian protests

2017–2019 Iranian protests
Protests in Tehran by Fars News 03.jpg
Protests in Tehran by Fars News 04.jpg
Tehran Bazaar protests 2018-06-25 03.jpg
Tehran Bazaar protests 2018-06-25 05.jpg
Police during 2018 Iranian protests 02.jpg
Police during 2018 Iranian protests 05.jpg
DateSince 28 December 2017
Caused by
MethodsDemonstrations, riots, civil disobedience, strikes
Parties to the civil conflict
Iranian opposition
Supported by:
  • Tens of thousands (domestic)[11]
  • Thousands (international)[12][7]
Tens of thousands of law enforcement personnel[13]
Death(s)24[14][15] to 26[16] protesters1 law enforcement officer[20][21]
Arrested≈ 4,972[22][23]

The 2017–2019 Iranian protests refer to a series of public protests occurring in various cities throughout Iran beginning on 28 December 2017 and continuing into 2019. The first protest took place in Mashhad, Iran's second-largest city by population, initially focused on the economic policies of the country's government; however, as protests spread throughout the country, their scope expanded to include political opposition to the theocratic regime of Iran and its longtime Supreme Leader, Ali Khamenei.[24] According to The Washington Post,[25] protesters' chants and attacks on government buildings upended a system that had little tolerance for dissent, with some demonstrators even shouting "Death to the dictator!" — referring to Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei — and asking security forces to join them.

The protests mark the most intense domestic challenge to the Iranian government since the 2009 presidential election protests.[26] However, these protests differ from the Green movement in participants, causes, goals, and chants.[27][28]Unlike 2009, the 2017–2019 protests protests remain leaderless and disorganized.[29] While some analysts suggest the protests are a result of unfavorable economic policies adopted by the administration of Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, others say that dissatisfaction with the theocratic regime and the Supreme Leader are the actual causes of the unrest.[2][30][31] Rouhani acknowledged on 8 January 2018 that "people had economic, political and social demands".[9][32][33]

According to Iranian authorities, protests turned violent in some parts of the country, and Iranian state television reported that the protesters attacked police stations and military personnel and installations, and started fires.[34][35] As of 2 January 2018, at least twenty-one protesters and two security force members had been killed. Additionally, 3,700 demonstrators were arrested according to Mahmoud Sadeghi, a reformist lawmaker from Tehran, though official figures were much lower.[22][23][36][20] On 5 January 2018, four special rapporteurs of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights urged the Iranian government to acknowledge and respect rights of protesters and end its blocking of the Internet.[37]

In a backlash against the protests, thousands of government supporters staged pro-government rallies in more than a dozen cities across Iran.[38]


The current Iranian regime came into power following the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the Pahlavi dynasty overthrown in favor of a theocratic Islamic Republic led by Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini.[39][40]

Since 1989, Ali Khamenei has ruled Iran as Supreme Leader, making him the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East (after Oman's Sultan Qaboos), as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[41][42][43][44]

The Iranian president Hassan Rouhani, who was re-elected in 2017, had promised many changes such as a richer economy and open foreign policy but he has little power to change compared to Khamenei in the Iranian government.[9][45][46]

In 2006, following international concerns regarding the government's nuclear program, a comprehensive, international sanctions regime was imposed on Iran. In 2015, Iran negotiated a deal with the great powers of the world in exchange for economic relief. Many Iranians hoped relief from sanctions would result in economic prosperity; however, benefits have not reached the average Iranian.[47] Instead, the benefit from sanctions relief mostly went to state firms and Setad controlled by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei,[48][49] estimated by Reuters at $95 billion in 2013.[50][51] In 2017, according to the Iranian Chamber of Commerce, 33% of Iranians lived below the poverty line, and the gap between the rich and poor has deepened.[52] CNN's Hamid Panah argued that these distributional developments in the economy helped stoke the protests.[48] Recent economic hardships have appeared to incite economic protests and shine light on government corruption.[53]

President Hassan Rouhani between Yurt coal mine workers who protested to the government's lack of management

"The initial spark for the protests was a sudden jump in food prices. It is believed that hard-line opponents of Rouhani instigated the first demonstrations in the conservative city of Mashhad in eastern Iran, trying to direct public anger at the president. But as protests spread from town to town, the backlash turned against the entire ruling class."

— Associated Press, 6 January[54]

In order to deflect criticism about the economy, Rouhani had been complaining for several weeks about government money going to religious institutions, which are seen as the power-base of the hard-liners; according to international media reports, analysts believe that hard-liners started the protests as a means to embarrass Rouhani.[55]

Protesters registered their opposition to cuts to fuel and cash subsidies, contained in the 2018 budget proposal unveiled in mid-December, which caused widespread anger, with the hashtag #pashimanam ("we regret" [i.e. we regret our vote for Rouhani]) going viral across the country.[56] The generous government funding of the Revolutionary Guards remained unaffected,[57] and there were large increases for religious foundations, which are not required to declare how they spend their funds, and are "tied closely to powerful clerics and often serve as machines for patronage and propaganda to build support for their authority."[54]

The 2017–2019 events are the largest protest in Iran since the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests.[26]

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