1990 United States Census

Twenty-first Census
of the United States
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
1990USCensusLogo.svg
Census Logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 1990
Total population248,709,873
Percent changeIncrease 9.8%
Most populous stateCalifornia
29,760,021
Least populous stateWyoming
453,588

The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census.[1]

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained over 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States Census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople.[2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.[3]

State rankings

Rank
State
Population as of
1980 Census
Population as of
1990 Census
Change
Percent
change
1  California 23,667,902 29,760,021 Increase 6,092,119 Increase 25.7%
2  New York 17,558,072 17,990,455 Increase 432,383 Increase 2.5%
3  Texas 14,229,191 16,986,510 Increase 2,757,319 Increase 19.4%
4  Florida 9,746,324 12,937,926 Increase 3,191,602 Increase 32.7%
5  Pennsylvania 11,863,895 11,881,643 Increase 17,748 Increase 0.15%
6  Illinois 11,426,518 11,430,602 Increase 4,084 Increase 0.0%
7  Ohio 10,797,630 10,847,115 Increase 49,485 Increase 0.4%
8  Michigan 9,262,078 9,295,297 Increase 33,219 Increase 0.4%
9  New Jersey 7,364,823 7,730,188 Increase 365,365 Increase 4.96%
10  North Carolina 5,881,766 6,628,637 Increase 746,871 Increase 12.7%
11  Georgia 5,463,105 6,478,216 Increase 1,015,111 Increase 18.6%
12  Virginia 5,346,818 6,187,358 Increase 840,540 Increase 15.7%
13  Massachusetts 5,737,037 6,016,425 Increase 279,388 Increase 4.87%
14  Indiana 5,490,224 5,544,159 Increase 53,935 Increase 0.98%
15  Missouri 4,916,686 5,117,073 Increase 200,387 Increase 4.1%
16  Wisconsin 4,705,767 4,891,769 Increase 186,002 Increase 3.9%
17  Tennessee 4,591,120 4,877,185 Increase 286,065 Increase 6.2%
18  Washington 4,132,156 4,866,692 Increase 734,536 Increase 17.8%
19  Maryland 4,216,975 4,781,468 Increase 564,493 Increase 13.4%
20  Minnesota 4,075,970 4,375,099 Increase 299,129 Increase 7.3%
21  Louisiana 4,205,900 4,219,973 Increase 14,073 Increase 0.3%
22  Alabama 3,893,888 4,040,587 Increase 146,699 Increase 3.8%
23  Kentucky 3,660,777 3,685,296 Increase 24,519 Increase 0.67%
24  Arizona 2,718,215 3,665,228 Increase 947,013 Increase 34.8%
25  South Carolina 3,121,820 3,486,703 Increase 364,883 Increase 11.7%
26  Colorado 2,889,964 3,294,394 Increase 404,430 Increase 14.0%
27  Connecticut 3,107,576 3,287,116 Increase 179,540 Increase 5.8%
28  Oklahoma 3,025,290 3,145,585 Increase 120,295 Increase 4.0%
29  Oregon 2,633,105 2,842,321 Increase 209,216 Increase 7.9%
30  Iowa 2,913,808 2,776,755 Decrease -137,053 Decrease -4.7%
31  Mississippi 2,520,638 2,573,216 Increase 52,578 Increase 2.1%
32  Kansas 2,363,679 2,477,574 Increase 113,895 Increase 4.8%
33  Arkansas 2,286,435 2,350,725 Increase 64,290 Increase 2.8%
34  West Virginia 1,949,644 1,793,477 Decrease -156,167 Decrease -8.0%
35  Utah 1,461,037 1,722,850 Increase 261,813 Increase 17.9%
36  Nebraska 1,569,825 1,578,385 Increase 8,560 Increase 0.54%
37  New Mexico 1,302,894 1,515,069 Increase 212,175 Increase 16.3%
38  Maine 1,124,660 1,227,928 Increase 103,268 Increase 9.2%
39  Nevada 800,493 1,201,833 Increase 401,340 Increase 50.1%
40  New Hampshire 920,610 1,109,252 Increase 188,642 Increase 20.5%
41  Hawaii 964,691 1,108,229 Increase 143,538 Increase 14.8%
42  Idaho 943,935 1,006,749 Increase 62,814 Increase 6.65%
43  Rhode Island 947,154 1,003,464 Increase 56,310 Increase 5.9%
44  Montana 786,690 799,065 Increase 12,375 Increase 1.6%
45  South Dakota 690,768 696,004 Increase 5,236 Increase 0.76%
46  Delaware 594,338 666,168 Increase 71,830 Increase 12.1%
47   North Dakota 652,717 638,800 Decrease -13,917 Decrease -2.1%
 District of Columbia 638,333 606,900 Decrease -31,433 Decrease -4.9%
48  Vermont 511,456 562,758 Increase 51,302 Increase 10.0%
49  Alaska 401,851 550,043 Increase 148,192 Increase 36.8%
50  Wyoming 469,557 453,588 Decrease -15,969 Decrease -3.4%
   United States 226,545,805 248,709,873 22,164,068 9.8%