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1906 (MCMVI)was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- March 4 – Termination of Native American tribal governments in Indian Territory, a prerequisite for creating the state of Oklahoma in 1907.
- March 10
- March 18 – In France, Romanian inventor Traian Vuia becomes the first person to achieve an unassisted takeoff in a heavier-than-air powered monoplane, but it is incapable of sustained flight.
- April 7 – Mount Vesuvius erupts, devastating Naples.
- April 14 – The Azusa Street Revival, the primary catalyst for the revival of Pentecostalism this century, opens in Los Angeles.
- April 18 – The San Francisco Earthquake (estimated magnitude 7.8) on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, California, killing at least 3,000, with 225,000–300,000 left homeless, and $350 million in damages.
- April 23 – In the Russian Empire, the Fundamental Laws are announced at the first state Duma.
- September 11 – Mahatma Gandhi coins the term Satyagraha, to characterize the nonviolence movement in South Africa.
- September 12 – The Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales by Viscount Tredegar.
- September 18 – A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong.
- September 30 – The first Gordon Bennett Cup in ballooning is held, starting in Paris. The winning team, piloting the balloon United States, lands in Fylingdales, Yorkshire, England.
- October 1 – The Grand Duchy of Finland becomes the first nation to include the right of women to stand as candidates, when it adopts universal suffrage.
- October 6 – The Majlis of Iran convenes for the first time.
- October 11 – A United States diplomatic crisis with Japan arises, when the San Francisco public school board orders Japanese students to be taught in racially segregated schools (it is resolved by next year).
- October 16 – Imposter Wilhelm Voigt impersonates a Prussian officer, and takes over the city hall in Köpenick for a short time.
- October 23 – An aeroplane of Alberto Santos-Dumont takes off at Bagatelle in France, and flies 60 meters (200 feet). This is the first officially recorded powered flight in Europe.
- October 28 – The Union Minière du Haut Katanga, a Belgian mining trust, is created in the Congo.
- November 3 – SOS becomes an international distress signal.
- November 22 – Russian Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin introduces agrarian reforms, aimed at creating a large class of land-owning peasants.
- December 4 – Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity forms at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; it is the first Black Greek-lettered collegiate order of its kind.
- December 15 – The London Underground's Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway opens.
- December 24 – Reginald Fessenden makes the first radio broadcast: a poetry reading, a violin solo, and a speech, from Brant Rock, Massachusetts.
- December 26 – The world's first feature film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, is first shown, at the Melbourne Athenaeum in Australia.
- December 30 – The All-India Muslim League is founded as a political party in Dhaka in the British Raj; it becomes a driving force for the creation of an independent Pakistan.
беларуская (тарашкевіца): 1906
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1906