17th century

Millennium:2nd millennium
State leaders:

The 17th century was the century that lasted from January 1, 1601, to December 31, 1700. It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company Dutch East India, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,[1] the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars, Mughal-Maratha Wars, and the Dutch-Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.[2]

A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein
Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Habsburg Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.
Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' War
Claiming Louisiana for France
Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century

In the Islamic world, the Gunpowder Empires, which are the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughals grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the sharia reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP,[3] and its wealthiest province, the Bengal Subah signaled the period of proto-industrialization.[4]

In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans and Indians were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).



Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.


French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: 17de eeu
Alemannisch: 17. Jahrhundert
العربية: القرن 17
aragonés: Sieglo XVII
asturianu: Sieglu XVII
azərbaycanca: XVII əsr
تۆرکجه: ۱۷. یوز ایل
Bân-lâm-gú: 17 sè-kí
Basa Banyumasan: Abad kaping-17
башҡортса: XVII быуат
беларуская: XVII стагоддзе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: XVII стагодзьдзе
български: 17 век
bosanski: 17. vijek
brezhoneg: XVIIvet kantved
català: Segle XVII
Чӑвашла: XVII ĕмĕр
čeština: 17. století
Cymraeg: 17eg ganrif
davvisámegiella: 1600-lohku (jahkečuohti)
eesti: 17. sajand
Ελληνικά: 17ος αιώνας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: XVII sécol
эрзянь: XVII пинге
español: Siglo XVII
Esperanto: 17-a jarcento
estremeñu: Sigru XVII
euskara: XVII. mendea
Fiji Hindi: 17th century
føroyskt: 17. øld
français: XVIIe siècle
Frysk: 17e iuw
Gaeilge: 17ú haois
Gaelg: 17oo eash
Gàidhlig: 17mh Linn
galego: Século XVII
贛語: 17世紀
한국어: 17세기
հայերեն: 17-րդ դար
hrvatski: 17. stoljeće
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad ke-17
interlingua: Seculo 17
Ирон: XVII æнус
íslenska: 17. öldin
italiano: XVII secolo
עברית: המאה ה-17
ქართული: XVII საუკუნე
қазақша: XVII ғасыр
Kiswahili: Karne ya 17
Latina: Saeculum 17
latviešu: 17. gadsimts
Lëtzebuergesch: 17. Joerhonnert
лезги: XVII виш йис
lietuvių: XVII amžius
Ligure: XVII secolo
Limburgs: Zeventiende iew
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentenio 17
lumbaart: Sécul XVII
magyar: 17. század
македонски: 17 век
Malti: Seklu XVII
Māori: Rautau 17
მარგალური: XVII ოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Abad ke-17
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 17 sié-gī
монгол: 17-р зуун
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၁၇ ရာစုနှစ်
Nederlands: 17e eeuw
Nedersaksies: 17e eeuw
日本語: 17世紀
Napulitano: XVII seculo
нохчийн: XVII бӀешо
Nordfriisk: 17. juarhunert
norsk nynorsk: 1600-talet
Nouormand: XVIIe s.
Novial: 17esmi sekle
occitan: Sègle XVII
олык марий: XVII курым
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: XVII asr
Plattdüütsch: 17. Johrhunnert
polski: XVII wiek
português: Século XVII
русиньскый: XVII. стороча
русский: XVII век
саха тыла: XVII үйэ
Seeltersk: 17. Jierhunnert
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakgolo 17
sicilianu: Sèculu XVII
Simple English: 17th century
slovenčina: 17. storočie
slovenščina: 17. stoletje
српски / srpski: 17. век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 17. vijek
Basa Sunda: Abad ka-17
suomi: 1600-luku
svenska: 1600-talet
татарча/tatarça: XVII гасыр
Türkçe: 17. yüzyıl
Türkmençe: 17-nji asyr
українська: XVII століття
vèneto: XVII secoło
Tiếng Việt: Thế kỷ 17
吴语: 17世纪
ייִדיש: 17טער י"ה
粵語: 17世紀
žemaitėška: XVII omžios
中文: 17世纪