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1729 (MDCCXXIX)was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1729th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 729th year of the 2nd millennium, the 29th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1729, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- March 23 (evening) – Johann Sebastian Bach's First Köthen Funeral music premieres at St. Jakob, Köthen, in honor of the funeral of his former employer Leopold, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen.
- March 24 (morning) – Johann Sebastian Bach's funeral cantata Klagt, Kinder, klagt es aller Welt, BWV 244a premieres at St. Jakob, for the same event as the previous day.
- April 15 – Johann Sebastian Bach's St Matthew Passion, BWV 244b is performed again, at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
- July 25 – Seven of the original eight Lords Proprietor sell their tracts within the Province of Carolina, back to the British crown. The Province is permanently divided, and reorganized into the Royal Colonies of North Carolina and South Carolina.
- July 30 – Baltimore, Maryland is founded.
- August 1 – The Comet of 1729, possibly the largest comet based on the absolute magnitude, on record, is discovered by Fr. Nicolas Sarrabat, a professor of mathematics at Marseille.
- September 29 – October 5, Battle of Damghan: The Persians under Nader Afshar defeat the Afghans and their allies.
- November – The first (wooden) Putney Bridge is completed, as the only fixed crossing of the River Thames between London Bridge and Kingston, England.
- November 9 – The Treaty of Seville is signed between Great Britain, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic.
- November 29 – Natchez revolt: The worst Indian massacre to take place on Mississippi soil occurs when Natchez people kill 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie (near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi).
беларуская (тарашкевіца): 1729
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1729