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1726 (MDCCXXVI)was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1726th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 726th year of the 2nd millennium, the 26th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1726, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- The Terengganu Sultanate is established at Terengganu Darul Iman (now known as Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia).
- February 8 – Catherine I becomes Empress of Russia, on the death of her husband, Peter the Great.
- February 20 – The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony.
- March 2 – In London, a night watchman finds a severed head by the Thames; it is later recognized to be that of the husband of Catherine Hayes. She and an accomplice are later executed.
- March 30 – The second performance of Johann Sebastian Bach's St John Passion, BWV 245 (including 5 movements from his Weimarer Passion), takes place at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
- April 30 – Emperor Charles VI of Austria and King Philip V of Spain sign the Treaty of Vienna.
- May 12 – The Black Watch is raised as a military company, as part of the pacification of the Scottish Highlands under General George Wade.
- May 21 – The Order of Alexander Nevsky is instituted in Russia by Empress Catherine I.
- May 24 – Jonathan Wild, fraudulent Thief-Taker General, is hanged at Tyburn in London, for actually aiding criminals.
- June 24 – The Grand Lodge of Ireland in Dublin holds its first recorded meeting, making it the second most senior Grand Lodge in world Freemasonry, and the oldest in continuous existence.
беларуская (тарашкевіца): 1725
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1725