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1697 (MDCXCVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1697th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 697th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1697, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January – French writer Charles Perrault publishes Histoires ou contes du temps passé ("Mother Goose tales") in Paris, a collection of popular fairy tales, including Cinderella, Puss in Boots, Red Riding Hood, The Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard.
- January 8 – Scottish student Thomas Aikenhead is hanged outside Edinburgh, becoming the last person in Great Britain to be executed for blasphemy.
- March 9 – Peter the Great of Russia sets out to travel in Europe incognito, as Artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov.
- March 13 – The Spanish conquest of Petén, and of Yucatán, is completed with the fall of Nojpetén, capital of the Itza Maya Kingdom, the last independent Maya state.
- March 22 – Charles II of Spain issues a Royal Cedula extending to the indigenous nobles of the Spanish Crown colonies, as well as to their descendants, the preeminence and honors customarily attributed to the Hidalgos of Castile.
- March 26 – Safavid government troops take control of Basra.
- April 5 – Charles XII, the Swedish Meteor, becomes king of Sweden upon the death of his father, Charles XI.
- May 17 (May 7 Old Style) – The 13th century royal Tre Kronor ("Three Crowns") castle in Stockholm burns to the ground. A large portion of the royal library is destroyed.
- June 1 – Augustus II the Strong becomes king of Poland.
- June 30 – The earliest known first-class cricket match takes place in Sussex, England.
- January 8 – Thomas Aikenhead, Scottish student (hanged) (b. c. 1678)
- January 12 – Andrzej Stech, Polish painter (b. 1635)
- January 26 – Georg Mohr, Danish mathematician (b. 1640)
- January 28 – John Fenwick, English conspirator (b. c. 1645)
- February 4 – Adrien de Wignacourt, French 63rd Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1618)
- February 5 – Esaias Fleischer, Danish priest (b. 1633)
- February 11 – Georg Händel, German musician (b. 1622)
- February 17 – Francis Dane, American colonial priest (b. 1615)
- March 1 – Francesco Redi, Italian physician (b. 1626)
- March 12 – Gaspar de la Cerda, 8th Count of Galve (b. 1653)
- March 19 – Nicolaus Bruhns, German organist and composer (b. 1665)
- March 26 – Godfrey McCulloch, Scottish politician and murderer (executed) (b. 1640)
- March 27 – Simon Bradstreet, English colonial magistrate (b. 1603)
- April 4 – Andrea Carlone, Italian painter (b. 1626)
- April 5 – King Charles XI of Sweden (b. 1655)
- April 8 – Niels Juel, Danish admiral (b. 1629)
- May 2 – Simon Henry, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1666–1697) (b. 1649)
- May 8 – Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet, English Member of Parliament (b. 1634)
- May 24 – Johann Adolf I, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, German duke (b. 1649)
- June 3 – Silvius II Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Oels (b. 1651)
- June 7 – John Aubrey, English antiquary and writer (b. 1626)
- June 10 – Francis Pemberton, English judge, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench (b. 1624)
- June 12 – Ann Baynard, English natural philosopher (b. 1672)
- June 18 – Gregorio Barbarigo, Italian Catholic saint (b. 1625)
- June 19 – Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough, English diplomat (b. 1621)
- June 21 – Joseph Anthelmi, French ecclesiastical historian (b. 1648)
- July 18
- July 30 – Lorentz Mortensen Angell, Norwegian merchant and landowner (b. 1626)
- August 5 – Jean-Baptiste de Santeul, French writer (b. 1630)
- November 8 – Samuel Enys, English politician (b. 1611)
- November 22 – Libéral Bruant, French architect (b. c. 1635)
- December 17 – Eleanor of Austria, Queen of Poland (b. 1653)
- December 20 – Frederick Charles, Duke of Württemberg-Winnental (b. 1652)
- December 31 – Lucas Faydherbe, Belgian sculptor and architect (b. 1617)
- date unknown – Karin Thomasdotter, Finnish official (b. 1610)