|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1606.|
1606 (MDCVI)was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1606th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 606th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1606, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January 29 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the Pitcairn Islands.
- January 24 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators, for plotting against Parliament and James I of England, begins.
- January 31 – Guy Fawkes is executed.
- February 9 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Mehetia.
- February 12 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Tauere atoll.
- February 26 – Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia by a European.
- March – The Duke of York's ship Duyfken, under Captain Willem Janszoon, explores the western coast of Cape York Peninsula.
- March 19 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francesco, elevates Livorno to the rank of city.
- April 10 – Charter of 1606: The First Charter of Virginia is adopted, by which King James I of England grants rights to the Virginia Company (comprising the London Company and Plymouth Company) to settle parts of the east coast of North America.
- April 12 – The first version of the Union Flag is created, to be worn as a national flag by English and Scottish ships.
- May – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing them to be Australia, he names them La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
- May 17 – Supporters of Vasili Shuisky invade the Kremlin, and kill Tsar Dmitry I of Russia.
беларуская (тарашкевіца): 1606
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 1606