11th century

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Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere in early half of 11th century
Political boundaries in Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 11th century

The 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era, and the 1st century of the 2nd millennium.

In the history of Europe, this period is considered the early part of the High Middle Ages. There was a sudden decline of Byzantine power and rise of Norman domination over much of Europe, along with the prominent role in Europe of notably influential popes. In Northern Italy, a growth of population in urban centers gave rise to early organized capitalism and more sophisticated, commercialized culture by the late 11th century. In Russia, there was the golden age for the principality of Kievan Rus.

In Song dynasty China and the classical Islamic world, this century marked the high point for both classical Chinese civilization, science and technology, and classical Islamic science, philosophy, technology and literature.Rival political factions at the Song dynasty court created strife amongst the leading statesmen and ministers of the empire. Chola-era India and Fatimid-era Egypt, had reached their zenith in military might and international influence. The Western Chalukya Empire (the Chola's rival) also rose to power by the end of the century.

In this century the Turkish Seljuk dynasty comes to power in Western Asia over the now fragmented Abbasid realm, while the first of the Crusades were waged towards the close of the century. In Japan, the Fujiwara clan continued to dominate the affairs of state. In Korea, the Goryeo Kingdom flourished and faced external threats from the Liao dynasty (Manchuria). In Vietnam, the Lý Dynasty began, while in Myanmar the Pagan Kingdom reached its height of political and military power. In the Americas, the Toltec and Mixtec civilizations flourished in Central America, along with the Huari Culture of South America and the Mississippian culture of North America.

Overview

The Brihadeeswarar Temple of Chola era southern India, completed in 1010, during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I.

In European history, the 11th century is regarded as the beginning of the High Middle Ages, an age subsequent to the Early Middle Ages. The century began while the translatio imperii of 962 was still somewhat novel and ended in the midst of the Investiture Controversy. It saw the final Christianisation of Scandinavia and the emergence of the Peace and Truce of God movements, the Gregorian Reforms, and the Crusades which revitalised a church and a papacy that had survived tarnished by the tumultuous 10th century. In 1054, the Great Schism rent the church in two, however.

In Germany, the century was marked by the ascendancy of the Holy Roman Emperors, who hit their high-water mark under the Salians.

In Italy, it opened with the integration of the kingdom into the empire and the royal palace at Pavia was summoned in 1024. By the end of the century, Lombard and Byzantine rule in the Mezzogiorno had been usurped by the Normans and the power of the territorial magnates was being replaced by that of the citizens of the cities in the north.

In Britain, it saw the transformation of Scotland into a single, more unified and centralised kingdom and the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The social transformations wrought in these lands brought them into the fuller orbit of European feudal politics.

In France, it saw the nadir of the monarchy and the zenith of the great magnates, especially the dukes of Aquitaine and Normandy, who could thus foster such distinctive contributions of their lands as the pious warrior who conquered Britain, Italy, and the East and the impious peacelover, the troubadour, who crafted out of the European vernacular its first great literary themes. There were also the first figures of the intellectual movement known as Scholasticism, which emphasized dialectic arguments in disputes of Christian theology as well as classical philosophy.

In Spain, the century opened with the successes of the last caliphs of Córdoba and ended in the successes of the Almoravids. In between was a period of Christian unification under Navarrese hegemony and success in the Reconquista against the taifa kingdoms that replaced the fallen caliphate.

A Scholar in a Meadow, Chinese Song dynasty, 11th century.

In China, there was a triangular affair of continued war and peace settlements between the Song dynasty, the Tanguts-led Western Xia in the northwest, and the Khitans of the Liao dynasty in the northeast. Meanwhile, opposing political factions evolved at the Song imperial court of Kaifeng. The political reformers at court, called the New Policies Group (新法, Xin Fa), were led by Emperor Shenzong of Song and the Chancellors Fan Zhongyan and Wang Anshi, while the political conservatives were led by Chancellor Sima Guang and Empress Dowager Gao, regent of the young Emperor Zhezong of Song. Heated political debate and sectarian intrigue followed, while political enemies were often dismissed from the capital to govern frontier regions in the deep south where malaria was known to be very fatal to northern Chinese people (see History of the Song dynasty). This period also represents a high point in classical Chinese science and technology, with figures such as Su Song and Shen Kuo, as well as the age where the matured form of the Chinese pagoda was accomplished in Chinese architecture.

In India, the Chola Dynasty reached its height of naval power under leaders such as Rajaraja Chola I and Rajendra Chola I, dominating southern India (Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka, and regions of South East Asia. They also sent raids into what is now Thailand.

In Japan, the Fujiwara clan dominated central politics by acting as imperial regents, controlling the actions of the Emperor of Japan, who acted merely as a 'puppet monarch' during the Heian period.

In the Middle East, the Fatimid Empire of Egypt reached its zenith only to face steep decline, much like the Byzantine Empire in the first half of the century. The Seljuks came to prominence while the Abbasid caliphs held traditional titles without real, tangible authority in state affairs.

In Nigeria, formation of city states, kingdoms and empires, including Hausa kingdoms and Borno dynasty in north, Oyo and Benin kingdoms in south.

In Korea, the rulers of the Goryeo Kingdom were able to concentrate more central authority into their own hands than in that of the nobles, and were able to fend off two Khitan invasions with their armies.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: 11de eeu
Alemannisch: 11. Jahrhundert
العربية: القرن 11
aragonés: Sieglo XI
asturianu: Sieglu XI
авар: XI гІасру
azərbaycanca: XI əsr
تۆرکجه: ۱۱. یوز ایل
Bân-lâm-gú: 11 sè-kí
Basa Banyumasan: Abad kaping-11
башҡортса: XI быуат
беларуская: XI стагоддзе
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: XI стагодзьдзе
български: 11 век
bosanski: 11. vijek
brezhoneg: XIvet kantved
català: Segle XI
Чӑвашла: XI ĕмĕр
čeština: 11. století
Cymraeg: 11eg ganrif
eesti: 11. sajand
Ελληνικά: 11ος αιώνας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: XI sécol
эрзянь: XI пинге
español: Siglo XI
Esperanto: 11-a jarcento
estremeñu: Sigru XI
euskara: XI. mendea
føroyskt: 11. øld
français: XIe siècle
Frysk: 11e iuw
Gaeilge: 11ú haois
Gaelg: 11oo eash
Gàidhlig: 11mh Linn
galego: Século XI
贛語: 11世紀
한국어: 11세기
հայերեն: 11-րդ դար
hrvatski: 11. stoljeće
Bahasa Indonesia: Abad ke-11 hingga 20
interlingua: Seculo 11
íslenska: 11. öldin
italiano: XI secolo
עברית: המאה ה-11
Basa Jawa: Abad ping 11
ქართული: XI საუკუნე
қазақша: XI ғасыр
Kiswahili: Karne ya 11
Latina: Saeculum 11
latviešu: 11. gadsimts
Lëtzebuergesch: 11. Joerhonnert
лезги: XI виш йис
lietuvių: XI amžius
Ligure: XI secolo
Limburgs: Elfde iew
Lingua Franca Nova: Sentenio 11
lumbaart: Sécul XI
magyar: 11. század
македонски: 11 век
Māori: Rautau 11
მარგალური: XI ოშწანურა
Bahasa Melayu: Abad ke-11
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: 11 sié-gī
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ၁၁ ရာစုနှစ်
Nederlands: 11e eeuw
Nedersaksies: 11e eeuw
日本語: 11世紀
Napulitano: XI seculo
нохчийн: XI бӀешо
Nordfriisk: 11. juarhunert
norsk nynorsk: 1000-talet
Nouormand: XIe s.
occitan: Sègle XI
олык марий: XI курым
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: XI asr
Plattdüütsch: 11. Johrhunnert
polski: XI wiek
português: Século XI
русиньскый: XI. стороча
русский: XI век
саха тыла: XI үйэ
Seeltersk: 11. Jierhunnert
Sesotho sa Leboa: Ngwagakgolo 11
sicilianu: XI sèculu
Simple English: 11th century
slovenčina: 11. storočie
slovenščina: 11. stoletje
српски / srpski: 11. век
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: 11. vijek
Basa Sunda: Abad ka-11
suomi: 1000-luku
svenska: 1000-talet
татарча/tatarça: XI гасыр
Türkçe: 11. yüzyıl
Türkmençe: 11-nji asyr
українська: XI століття
vèneto: XI secolo
Tiếng Việt: Thế kỷ 11
ייִדיש: 11טער י"ה
粵語: 11世紀
Zeêuws: 11e eêuw
žemaitėška: XI omžios
中文: 11世纪