České Budějovice

České Budějovice
Budweis
City
Old town in mid-October 2008
Old town in mid-October 2008
Flag of České Budějovice
Flag
Coat of arms of České Budějovice
Coat of arms
České Budějovice is located in Czech Republic
České Budějovice
České Budějovice
Coordinates: 48°58′29″N 14°28′29″E / 48°58′29″N 14°28′29″E / 48.97472; 14.47472

České Budějovice (Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskɛː ˈbuɟɛjovɪtsɛ]; German: Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, Latin: Budovicium[1]) is a statutory city in the Czech Republic. It is the largest city in the South Bohemian Region as well as its political and commercial capital, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of České Budějovice, the University of South Bohemia, and the Academy of Sciences. It is located in the center of a valley of the Vltava River, at the confluence with the Malše. It is famous for Budweiser.

České Budějovice, which is located in the historical province of Bohemia, is not to be confused with Moravské Budějovice in Moravia.

History

Trams on Radecky street (now Žižkova street), c. 1909

The city was founded in 1265 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who granted its municipal charter in 1265. The siting and planning of the city was carried out by the king's knight Hirzo. The settlers were coming from the Bohemian Forest and Upper Austria.[2] The royal city was created as a platform of the king's power in South Bohemia and to counterbalance the powerful noble House of Rosenberg, which became extinct in 1611.

In 1341 King John of Bohemia allowed Jewish families to reside within the city walls, and the first synagogue was built in 1380; however several pogroms occurred in the late 15th and early 16th century. Since the Hussite Wars, the city was traditionally a bulwark of the Catholic Church during the long-lasting religious conflicts in the Kingdom of Bohemia. A part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526, Budejovice remained a loyal supporter of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. Budějovice underwent a short occupation by Prussia during the Silesian Wars, and the war between the Habsburgs and the French army in 1742.

In 1762 the Piarists established a gymnasium here and Emperor Joseph II founded the diocese in 1785. In 1847, the production of Koh-i-Noor Hardtmuth pencils was relocated from Vienna to Budějovice.

During the Second World War in March 1945, Budějovice was twice targeted by U.S. Air Force raids that greatly damaged the city and caused great loss of life. At the end of the war, on 9 May 1945, Soviet troops liberated the city. On the following day, the Red Army and the American Army met on the main square in a joint celebration of the city's liberation.

Other Languages
Bân-lâm-gú: České Budějovice
беларуская: Чэске-Будзеёвіцы
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Чэске-Будзеёвіцы
Boarisch: Budweis
Deutsch: Budweis
hornjoserbsce: České Budějovice
Bahasa Indonesia: České Budějovice
Interlingue: České Budějovice
Kapampangan: České Budějovice
Latina: Budovicium
македонски: Ческе Будјејовице
Bahasa Melayu: České Budějovice
norsk nynorsk: České Budějovice
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Cheskebudeyovitse
Simple English: České Budějovice
slovenčina: České Budějovice
српски / srpski: Чешке Будјејовице
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: České Budějovice
татарча/tatarça: Ческе-Будеёвице
українська: Чеське Будейовице
Tiếng Việt: České Budějovice