Árpád dynasty

Árpád dynasty
Coa Hungary Country History (855-1301).svg
CountryPrincipality of Hungary,
Kingdom of Hungary
Foundedc. 855
Final rulerAndrew III
TitlesKing of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Cumania, Slavonia, Bulgaria, Lodomeria, Duke of Styria
Estate(s)Kingdom of Hungary

The Árpáds or Arpads (Hungarian: Árpádok, Croatian: Arpadovići, Serbian: Арпадовци, romanizedArpadovci, Slovak: Arpádovci, Bosnian: Arpadović) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as the Turul dynasty, but rarely.[citation needed]

Both the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Álmos) and the first king of Hungary (Saint Stephen) were members of the dynasty.

Seven members of the dynasty were canonized or beatified by the Roman Catholic Church; therefore, since the 13th century the dynasty has often been referred to as the "Kindred of the Holy Kings". Two Árpáds were recognized as Saints by the Eastern Orthodox Church.

The dynasty came to end in 1301 with the death of King Andrew III of Hungary, while the last member of the House of Árpád, Andrew's daughter, Blessed Elizabeth of Töss, died in 1336 or 1338. All of the subsequent kings of Hungary (with the exception of King Matthias Corvinus) were cognatic descendants of the Árpád dynasty. The House of Croÿ[1] and the Drummond family of Scotland[2] claim to descend from Princes Géza and George, sons of medieval Hungarian kings: Géza II and Andrew I, respectively.

9th and 10th centuries

Medieval chroniclers stated that the Árpáds' forefather was Ügyek, whose name derived from the ancient Hungarian word for "holy" (igy).[3] The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("The Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians") mentioned that the Árpáds descended from the gens (clan) Turul,[4] and the Gesta Hungarorum ("The Deeds of the Hungarians") recorded that the Árpáds' totemic ancestor was a turul (a large bird, probably a falcon).[5] Medieval chroniclers also referred to a tradition that the Árpáds descended from Attila the Hun – the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum, for example, has Árpád say:

The land stretching between the Danube and the Tisza used to belong to my forefather, the mighty Attila.

— Gesta Hungarorum[6]

The first member of the dynasty mentioned by a nearly contemporary written source was Álmos. The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII recorded in his De Administrando Imperio that Álmos was the first Grand Prince of the federation of the seven Magyar tribes (megas Turkias arkhon).[7] Álmos probably accepted the supremacy of the Khagan of the Khazars in the beginning of his rule, but, by 862, the Magyar tribal federation broke free from the Khazar Khaganate.[8] Álmos was either the spiritual leader of the tribal federation (kende) or its military commander (gyula).[9]

Árpád's wife, oil on canvas

Around 895, the women and cattle of the Magyar warriors battling in the west were attacked by the Pechenegs, forcing them to leave their territories east of the Carpathian Mountains; the Magyars moved into the Carpathian Basin.[10] Álmos's death was probably ritual sacrifice, practiced by steppe peoples when the spiritual ruler lost his charisma, and he was followed by his son, Árpád.[11][clarification needed]

The Magyar tribes gradually occupied the whole territory of the Carpathian Basin between 895 and 907.[12] Between 899 and 970, the Magyars frequently conducted raids into the territories of present-day Italy, Germany, France and Spain and into the lands of the Byzantine Empire.[13] Such activities continued westwards until the Battle of Lechfeld (955), when Otto, King of the Germans destroyed their troops; their raids against the Byzantine Empire ended in 970.[14]

From 917, the Magyars made raids into several territories at the same time, which may have led to the disintegration their tribal federation.[15] The sources prove the existence of at least three and possibly five groups of tribes within the tribal federation, and only one of them was led directly by the Árpáds.[16]

The list of the Grand Princes of the Magyars in the first half of the 10th century is incomplete, which may also prove a lack of central government within their tribal federation.[17] The medieval chronicles mention that Grand Prince Árpád was followed by his son, Zoltán, but contemporary sources only refer to Grand Prince Fajsz (around 950).[18] After the defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld, Grand Prince Taksony (in or after 955 – before 972) adopted the policy of isolation from the Western countries – in contrast to his son, Grand Prince Géza (before 972–997) who may have sent envoys to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in 973.[19]

Géza was baptised in 972, and although he never became a convinced Christian, the new faith started to spread among the Hungarians during his reign.[20] He managed to expand his rule over the territories west of the Danube and the Garam (today Hron in Slovakia), but significant parts of the Carpathian Basin still remained under the rule of local tribal leaders.[21]

Géza was followed by his son Stephen (originally called Vajk), who had been a convinced follower of Christianity.[22] Stephen had to face the rebellion of his relative, Koppány, who claimed Géza's inheritance based on the Magyar tradition of agnatic seniority.[23] He was able to defeat Koppány with the assistance of the German retinue of his wife, Giselle of Bavaria.[24]

Other Languages
العربية: سلالة أرباد
azərbaycanca: Arpad sülaləsi
беларуская: Дынастыя Арпадаў
български: Арпади
bosanski: Arpadovići
čeština: Arpádovci
Deutsch: Árpáden
español: Casa de Árpad
Esperanto: Arpad-dinastio
français: Árpád
hrvatski: Arpadovići
Bahasa Indonesia: Wangsa Árpád
italiano: Arpadi
עברית: בית ארפאד
ქართული: არპადები
қазақша: Арпад әулеті
Кыргызча: Арпаддар
lietuvių: Arpadai
magyar: Árpád-ház
Nāhuatl: Árpád-ház
Nederlands: Árpáden
polski: Arpadowie
português: Casa de Arpades
русский: Арпады
slovenčina: Arpádovci
slovenščina: Árpádovci
српски / srpski: Арпадовићи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Arpadovići
svenska: Huset Árpád
українська: Арпади
West-Vlams: Huus Árpád