Álvaro Obregón

Álvaro Obregón
Obregón Salido, Álvaro.jpg
39th President of Mexico
In office
December 1, 1920 – November 30, 1924
Preceded byAdolfo de la Huerta
Succeeded byPlutarco Elías Calles
Personal details
Born
Álvaro Obregón Salido

(1880-02-19)February 19, 1880
Siquisiva, Navojoa, Sonora
DiedJuly 17, 1928(1928-07-17) (aged 48)
San Ángel, Mexico City
Cause of deathAssassination
NationalityMexican
Political partyLaborist Party (PL)
Spouse(s)María Tapia (1888-1971)
Military service
Allegiance Mexico
Service/branch Mexican Army
RankGeneral
Battles/warsMexican Revolution

Álvaro Obregón Salido (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalβaɾo oβɾeˈɣon]; February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.

Obregón's presidency was the first stable presidency since the Revolution began in 1910. He oversaw massive educational reform (with Mexican muralism flourishing), moderate land reform, and labor laws sponsored by the increasingly powerful Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers. In August 1923, he signed the Bucareli Treaty that clarified the rights of the Mexican government and U.S. oil interests and brought U.S. diplomatic recognition to his government.[1] In 1923–24, Obregón's finance minister, Adolfo de la Huerta, launched a rebellion in part protesting the Bucareli Treaty; Obregón returned to the battlefield to crush the rebellion. In his victory, he was aided by the United States with arms and 17 U.S. planes that bombed de la Huerta's supporters.[2]

In 1924, Obregón's fellow Northern revolutionary general and hand-picked successor, Plutarco Elías Calles, was elected president, and although Obregón ostensibly retired to Sonora, he remained influential under Calles. Having pushed through constitutional reform to once again make reelection possible, Obregón won the 1928 election, but was assassinated by José de León Toral, a Mexican offended by the government's anti-religious laws, before he could begin his second term. Toral's subsequent trial ultimately led to his execution by firing squad, and it also involved a Capuchin nun named María Concepción Acevedo de la Llata, "Madre Conchita", who was thought to be the mastermind behind Obregón's murder.[3]

Early years, 1880–1911

Obregón was born in Siquisiva, Sonora, Municipality of Navojoa, the son of Francisco Obregón and Cenobia Salido. Francisco Obregón had once owned a substantial estate, but his business partner supported Emperor Maximilian during the French intervention in Mexico (1861–1867), and the family's estate was therefore confiscated by the Liberal government in 1867.[4] Francisco Obregón died in 1880, the year of Álvaro Obregón's birth, leaving Álvaro to be raised in poverty by his mother and his older sisters Cenobia, María, and Rosa.[5]

During his childhood, he worked on the family farm and became acquainted with the Mayo people who also worked there. He attended a school run by his brother José in Huatabampo and thus received an elementary education. He spent his teenage years working a variety of jobs, before finding permanent employment in 1898 as a lathe operator at the sugar mill owned by his maternal uncles in Navolato, Sinaloa.[5]

In 1903, he married Refugio Urrea and in 1904, he left the sugar mill to sell shoes door-to-door, and then to become a tenant farmer. By 1906, he was in a position to buy his own small farm, where he grew chickpeas. The next year was tragic for Obregón as his wife and two of his children died, leaving him a widower with two small children, who were henceforth raised by his three older sisters. In 1909, Obregón invented a chickpea harvester and soon founded a company to manufacture these harvesters, complete with a modern assembly line. He successfully marketed these harvesters to chickpea farmers throughout the Mayo Valley.[5]

Other Languages
asturianu: Álvaro Obregón
čeština: Álvaro Obregón
Esperanto: Álvaro Obregón
français: Álvaro Obregón
Bahasa Indonesia: Álvaro Obregón
Bahasa Melayu: Álvaro Obregón
Nederlands: Álvaro Obregón
português: Álvaro Obregón
Runa Simi: Alvaro Obregón
Simple English: Álvaro Obregón
slovenščina: Álvaro Obregón
српски / srpski: Алваро Обрегон
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Álvaro Obregón
Tiếng Việt: Álvaro Obregón Salido
粵語: 奧夫雷貢