... that it was reportedly Elizabeth Willing Powel(pictured) who asked Benjamin Franklin whether the United States was to be "a republic or a monarchy", to which he responded: "A republic... if you can keep it"?
Starting soon after the American Civil War, George Pullman sought out former slaves to work on his sleeping cars. Until the 1960s, Pullman porters were exclusively black and, in 1925, under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph, they formed the first all-black union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. They were supervised by a Pullman conductor, who was then invariably white. In 1926, Pullman employed more than 10,000 porters, a term that has been superseded by "sleeping car attendant".