Tarjeta gráfica

Tarjeta gráfica
Tarjeta de video
Placa de video
Gpu-connections.png
Se conecta a
Placa base, mediante uno de estos sistemas:
Pantalla[1] , mediante uno de estos sistemas:
Fabricantes comunes
[ editar datos en Wikidata]
Tarjeta gráfica PCI-Express.

Una tarjeta gráfica es una tarjeta de expansión o un circuito integrado (chip), de la placa base del ordenador, que se encarga de procesar los datos provenientes de la unidad central de procesamiento ( CPU) y transformarlos en información comprensible y representable en el dispositivo de salida (por ejemplo: monitor, televisor o proyector).

También se le conoce como:

  • Adaptador de pantalla
  • Adaptador de vídeo
  • Placa de vídeo
  • Tarjeta aceleradora de gráficos
  • Tarjeta de vídeo

Es habitual que se utilice el mismo término, para las tarjetas dedicadas y separadas ( tarjeta de expansión), y para los chips de las unidades de procesamiento gráfico ( GPU) integrados en la placa base.

Algunas tarjetas gráficas han ofrecido funcionalidades añadidas como sintonización de televisión, captura de vídeo, decodificación[2] MPEG-2 y MPEG-4, o incluso conectores IEEE 1394 (Firewire), de mouse, lápiz óptico o joystick.

Las tarjetas gráficas más comunes son las disponibles para el ordenador compatibles con la IBM PC, debido a la enorme popularidad de estas, pero otras arquitecturas también hacen uso de este tipo de dispositivos.

Las tarjetas gráficas no son dominio exclusivo de los ordenador personal (PC) IBM compatibles; contaron o cuentan con ellas dispositivos como por ejemplo: Commodore Amiga (conectadas mediante las ranuras Zorro II y Zorro III), Apple II, Apple Macintosh, Spectravideo SVI-328, equipos MSX y en las videoconsolas modernas, como la Wii U, la PlayStation 4 y la Xbox One.

Dedicated vs integrated graphics

Classical desktop computer architecture with a distinct graphics card over PCI Express. Typical bandwidths for given memory technologies, missing are the memory latency. Zero-copy between GPU and CPU is not possible, since both have their distinct physical memories. Data must be copied from one to the other to be shared.
Integrated graphics with partitioned main memory: a part of the system memory is allocated to the GPU exclusively. Zero-copy is not possible, data has to be copied, over the system memory bus, from one partition to the other.
Integrated graphics with unified main memory, to be found AMD "Kaveri" or PlayStation 4 ( HSA).

As an alternative to the use of a video card, video hardware can be integrated into the motherboard or the CPU. Both approaches can be called integrated graphics. Motherboard-based implementations are sometimes called "on-board video" while CPU-based implementations are known as accelerated processing units (APUs). Almost all desktop computer motherboards with integrated graphics allow the disabling of the integrated graphics chip in BIOS, and have a PCI, or PCI Express (PCI-E) slot for adding a higher-performance graphics card in place of the integrated graphics. The ability to disable the integrated graphics sometimes also allows the continued use of a motherboard on which the on-board video has failed. Sometimes both the integrated graphics and a dedicated graphics card can be used simultaneously to feed separate displays. The main advantages of integrated graphics include cost, compactness, simplicity and low energy consumption. The performance disadvantage of integrated graphics arises because the graphics processor shares system resources with the CPU. A dedicated graphics card has its own random access memory ( RAM), its own cooling system, and dedicated power regulators, with all components designed specifically for processing video images. Upgrading to a dedicated graphics card offloads work from the CPU and system RAM, so not only will graphics processing be faster, but the computer's overall performance may also improve.

Both of the dominant CPU makers, AMD and Intel, are moving to APUs. One of the reasons is that graphics processors are powerful parallel processors, and placing them on the CPU die allows their parallel processing ability to be harnessed for various computing tasks in addition to graphics processing. (See Heterogeneous System Architecture, which discusses AMD's implementation.) APUs are the newer integrated graphics technology and, as costs decline, will probably be used instead of integrated graphics on the motherboard in most future low and mid-priced home and business computers. As of late 2013, the best APUs provide graphics processing approaching mid-range mobile video cards[3] and are adequate for casual gaming. Users seeking the highest video performance for gaming or other graphics-intensive uses should still choose computers with dedicated graphics cards. (See Size of market and impact of accelerated processing units on video card sales, below.)

Beyond the enthusiast segment is the market for professional video cards for workstations used in the special effects industry, and in fields such as design, analysis and scientific research. Nvidia is a major player in the professional segment. In November, 2013, AMD introduced a so-called "Supercomputing" graphics card "designed for data visualization in finance, oil exploration, aeronautics and automotive, design and engineering, geophysics, life sciences, medicine and defense."[4]

Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Video kart
български: Видеокарта
čeština: Grafická karta
dansk: Grafikkort
Deutsch: Grafikkarte
Ελληνικά: Κάρτα γραφικών
English: Video card
Esperanto: Vidkarto
eesti: Videokaart
français: Carte graphique
magyar: Videokártya
Bahasa Indonesia: Kartu grafis
italiano: Scheda video
ქართული: ვიდეობარათი
한국어: 그래픽 카드
Кыргызча: Видеоадаптер
lumbaart: Scheda Videu
lietuvių: Vaizdo plokštė
latviešu: Videokarte
олык марий: Видеокарт
македонски: Графичка картичка
Bahasa Melayu: Kad video
Nederlands: Videokaart
norsk nynorsk: Grafikkort
norsk bokmål: Skjermkort
português: Placa de vídeo
română: Placă video
русский: Видеокарта
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Grafička kartica
Simple English: Video card
slovenčina: Grafická karta
slovenščina: Grafična kartica
српски / srpski: Графичка карта
svenska: Grafikkort
Türkmençe: Kompýuter wideo
Türkçe: Ekran kartı
українська: Відеокарта
vèneto: Scheda video
Tiếng Việt: Bo mạch đồ họa
中文: 显示卡